You have to run lsusb -t to get full tree of USB hubs.
Below is the example from my USB 3.0 capable laptop:
$ lsusb -t
/: Bus 04.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/4p, 5000M
|__ Port 2: Dev 6, If 0, Class=Mass Storage, Driver=usb-storage, 5000M
/: Bus 03.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=xhci_hcd/4p, 480M
|__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 0, ...
The command sudo lsusb -v lists significant information about connected devices including speed capability. (Although I'm not sure if it lists actual speed.)
The sudo usbview command is a graphical browser, and one of the top items in its list seems to be the current speed of a device.
A setting on the phone governs how the computer interacts with it. On my Android 10 phone it's under Settings > Connected devices > USB preferences > File transfer.
Note that to see the USB preferences, it appears that you have to have a USB cable plugged in.
Five conditions must exist for USB devices to show up in Windows in VirtualBox running under Linux.
Extension pack and VirtualBox versions must match. The former can be found via File > Preferences > Extensions and the latter via Help > About.
USB Controller must be enabled in the VM configuration options.
VBox Guest Additions must be installed on ...
The power usage of a USB device is not likely to change because it was moved to a different port. What is far more likely is that the reporting of the power consumption changed by moving to a new port. A charging USB port will have to make a larger power budget allocation if anything is detected on the port as a device that is charging from USB doesn't ...