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1813
votes
24answers
3.2m views

How to list all installed packages

I'd like to output a list of all installed packages into a text file so that I can review it and bulk-install on another system. How would I do this?
1354
votes
9answers
4.4m views

How to unzip a zip file from the Terminal?

Just downloaded a .zip file from the internet. I want to use the terminal to unzip the file. What is the correct way to do this?
1188
votes
26answers
1.3m views

How can PPAs be removed?

I've added many PPAs using the add-apt-repository command. Is there a simple way to remove these PPAs? I've checked in /etc/apt/sources.list for the appropriate deb lines but they aren't there. This ...
1085
votes
10answers
3.3m views

How do I install a .deb file via the command line?

How do I install a .deb file via the command line?
1001
votes
22answers
3.2m views

Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is another process using it?

I get this error when trying to use apt-get: E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (11 Resource temporarily unavailable) E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/) is ...
916
votes
15answers
1.9m views

How to get bash or ssh into a running container in background mode?

I want to ssh or bash into a running docker container. Please, see example: $ sudo docker run -d webserver webserver is clean image from ubuntu:14.04 $ sudo docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE ...
848
votes
16answers
687k views

“The following packages have been kept back:” Why and how do I solve it?

I just added a PPA repository for the development version of the GIMP, but I get this error: $ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade ... The following packages have been kept back: gimp gimp-...
835
votes
8answers
3.0m views

A command to list all users? And how to add, delete, modify users?

I need a command to list all users in terminal. And how to add, delete, modify users from terminal. That could help in administrating your accounts easily by terminal.
808
votes
8answers
1.1m views

How to enable or disable services?

I read about how to enable and disable services in Ubuntu and it seems that there are different possibilities to manage them. The first method I found is update-rc.d to add new services to startup, ...
806
votes
7answers
2.7m views

How can I add a new user as sudoer using the command line?

After I add a user using adduser, I can't see it via System > Administration > Users and Groups unless I log out and then log in again. Is that normal? Also, can I set a newly added user as a sudoer ...
802
votes
5answers
2.3m views

How do I shut down or reboot from a terminal?

How can I shut down or reboot Ubuntu using terminal commands?
802
votes
6answers
864k views

How to upgrade a single package using apt-get?

How do I update a single package? As far as man apt-get says apt-get upgrade doesn't take a package/list of packages as parameter: upgrade upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all ...
792
votes
8answers
2.7m views

What command do I need to unzip/extract a .tar.gz file?

I received a huge .tar.gz file from a client that contains about 800 mb of image files (when uncompressed.) Our hosting company's ftp is seriously slow, so extracting all the files locally and sending ...
763
votes
12answers
898k views

How do I determine the total size of a directory (folder) from the command line?

Is there a simple command to display the total aggregate size (disk usage) of all files in a directory (folder)? I have tried these, and they don't do what I want: ls -l, which only displays the ...
751
votes
12answers
1.5m views

How do I uncompress a tarball that uses .xz?

I'm used to extracting tarballs with a -xfz flag, which handles gzip and bzip2 archives. Recently I've run into a .tar.xz file and I would like to uncompress it in one step using tar, how can I do ...
742
votes
3answers
727k views

How can I use docker without sudo?

On Docker's documentation pages, all example commands are shown without sudo, like this one: docker ps On Ubuntu, the binary is called docker.io. It also does not work without sudo: sudo docker.io ...
718
votes
20answers
918k views

Error message “sudo: unable to resolve host (none)”

When I run sudo the terminal is stuck for a few seconds and then outputs an error message. My terminal looks like this: ubuntu@(none):~$ sudo true sudo: unable to resolve host (none) What can I do ...
718
votes
10answers
1.5m views

Where is the cron / crontab log?

I want to verify that my cron job is executing and at what time. I believe there is a log for my sudo crontab -e jobs, but where? I searched google and found recommendations to look in /var/log (...
717
votes
82answers
521k views

What Application Indicators are available?

This question exists because it has historical significance, but it is not considered a good, on-topic question for this site, so please do not use it as evidence that you can ask similar questions ...
703
votes
6answers
2.1m views

How can I copy the contents of a folder to another folder in a different directory using terminal?

I am trying to copy the contents of a folder to another folder in a different directory using terminal. Would somebody be able to provide me an example of the command line syntax required to achieve ...
700
votes
17answers
1.3m views

How to add a directory to the PATH?

How do I add a directory to the $PATH in Ubuntu and make the changes permanent?
693
votes
38answers
1.1m views

How do I remove old kernel versions to clean up the boot menu?

Every time I install a new Linux kernel, it gets left in the grub_config, making the boot menu longer each time. I know I can manually search through the installed packages and remove them. Does ...
670
votes
9answers
2.1m views

How to install updates via command line?

When I log into my web server via SSH I see the information: 88 packages can be updated. 80 updates are security updates I tried apt-get update then apt-get upgrade but each time I log in I still ...
653
votes
7answers
1.2m views

How to add existing user to an existing group?

I want to add the Apache user (www-data) to the audio group. I've read the man page for useradd, but I'm not having any luck. I'm running xubuntu 11.10. Here's what I'm doing: $ sudo useradd -G audio ...
653
votes
6answers
912k views

How to extract files to another directory using 'tar' command?

I thought tar archive.tar /users/mylocation would work, but it doesn't. How can I do that?
647
votes
15answers
2.3m views

How do I reset a lost administrative password?

I'm working on a Ubuntu system, and my client has completely forgotten his administrative password. He doesn't even remember entering one; however it is there. I've tried the suggestions on the ...
639
votes
20answers
971k views

How do you monitor the progress of dd?

dd is a wonder. It lets you duplicate a hard drive to another, completely zero a hard drive, etc. But once you launch a dd command, there's nothing to tell you of its progress. It just sits there at ...
633
votes
7answers
1.5m views

How do I save terminal output to a file?

How do I save the output of a command to a file? Is there a way without using any software? I would like to know how.
625
votes
15answers
641k views

How to keep processes running after ending ssh session?

Let's say I launch a bunch of processes from a ssh session. Is it possible to terminate the ssh session while keeping those processes running on the remote machine?
618
votes
22answers
1.3m views

Command for determining my public IP?

If I check with google, I can see my public IP. Is there something on the Ubuntu command-line which will yield me the same answer?
617
votes
5answers
3.4m views

How to delete a non-empty directory in Terminal?

How do I delete the following directory? I typed: rmdir lampp This error comes up: rmdir: failed to remove `lampp': Directory not empty Is there a command to delete all the files in the directory ...
612
votes
7answers
1.3m views

Find and replace text within a file using commands

How can I find and replace specific words in a text file using command line?
605
votes
45answers
604k views

What should I do when Ubuntu freezes?

All operating systems freeze sometimes, and Ubuntu is no exception. What should I do to regain control when... just one program stops responding? nothing at all responds to mouse clicks or key ...
595
votes
12answers
970k views

How can I update my nodeJS to the latest version?

I have installed nodeJS on Ubuntu with following code sudo apt-get install nodejs Since I am a new user for ubuntu I also ran this code too sudo apt-get install npm Now when I type nodejs --...
575
votes
7answers
1.2m views

How to increment a variable in bash?

I have tried to increment a numeric variable using both var=$var+1 and var=($var+1) without success. The variable is a number, though bash appears to be reading it as a string. Bash version 4.2.45(1)...
565
votes
5answers
1.3m views

How do I search for available packages from the command-line?

I have successfully installed some packages using the command line 'sudo apt-get install ...' when I have known in advance that those packages are available. But how can I search for or get a list of ...
557
votes
22answers
573k views

How do I free up more space in /boot?

My /boot partition is nearly full and I get a warning every time I reboot my system. I already deleted old kernel packages (linux-headers...), actually I did that to install a newer kernel version ...
554
votes
27answers
863k views

How can I install Sun/Oracle's proprietary Java JDK 6/7/8 or JRE?

I want to install Oracle's JRE and to update to the latest version with the Software Updater when they released. Is there a Ubuntu package that is provided by Canonical or Oracle? Before release Java ...
551
votes
34answers
560k views

Unity doesn't load, no Launcher, no Dash appears

When I login, nothing happens. I am presented with my desktop wallpaper. No Dash, no Launcher, nothing.
548
votes
12answers
1.7m views

How do I install Ubuntu alongside a pre-installed Windows with UEFI?

I'm absolutely new to Linux. I would like to know how to install Ubuntu alongside the pre-installed Windows 8+ OS. Should I do it with Wubi, or through the Live USB/DVD? What steps do I need to take ...
547
votes
6answers
2.1m views

How do I rename a directory via the command line?

I have got the directory /home/user/oldname and I want to rename it to /home/user/newname. How can I do this in a terminal?
543
votes
25answers
386k views

How can I record my screen?

How can I record my screen on Ubuntu? The app I'm looking for has ideally all of these features: Can record in a format that can be played back easily on any platform and/or accepted by YouTube or ...
536
votes
8answers
1.4m views

What is the correct way to completely remove an application?

I've searched the net for such information and found different command lines, like these ones: sudo apt-get remove application sudo apt-get remove application* sudo apt-get remove --purge ...
531
votes
7answers
1.0m views

How do I set up a Cron job?

I want to schedule a task to run on a regular basis and have heard that Cron is the way to do this. How do I add Cron jobs in Ubuntu?
531
votes
14answers
911k views

How do I resolve unmet dependencies after adding a PPA?

Occasionally, when I'm installing stuff, I get an error like the following: Some packages could not be installed. This may mean that you have requested an impossible situation or if you are using the ...
517
votes
11answers
425k views

What are Unity's keyboard and mouse shortcuts?

In Unity, are there any pre-defined shortcuts, e.g. to open the dash or unhide the launcher?
510
votes
16answers
1.1m views

How do I get the CPU temperature?

How do I get the CPU temperature?
506
votes
46answers
943k views

Why crontab scripts are not working?

Often, crontab scripts are not executed on schedule or as expected. There are numerous reasons for that: wrong crontab notation permissions problem environment variables This community wiki aims to ...
506
votes
10answers
622k views

What are PPAs and how do I use them?

I keep reading about Personal Package Archives ('PPAs') and people answer questions with a link to a PPA. What's the best way to use these? There are multiple valid answers for this question ...
505
votes
7answers
606k views

How can I recursively delete all files of a specific extension in the current directory?

How do I safely delete all files with a specific extension (e.g. .bak) from current directory and all subfolders using one command-line? Simply, I'm afraid to use rm since I used it wrong once and now ...

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