Questions tagged [command-line]

Questions about using the command-line interface (CLI).

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1314 votes
11 answers
3.8m views

How do I install a .deb file via the command line?

How do I install a .deb file via the command line?
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  • 24.9k
39 votes
8 answers
51k views

Nothing shows up in the terminal when I type my password

When I'm about to install a program in the terminal it wants the password: [sudo] password for xxx: But when I start to type my password nothing happens. What should I do?
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  • 391
81 votes
5 answers
367k views

What is a terminal and how do I open and use it?

What is a terminal? How do I open a terminal window? How do I use the terminal?
187 votes
7 answers
239k views

How to solve "permission denied" when using sudo with redirection in Bash?

When using sudo to allow edits to files, I regularly get 'permission denied'. For example, my mouse is jittery and sluggish, so I want to disable polling: sudo echo "options drm_kms_helper poll=N"&...
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  • 3,589
66 votes
10 answers
111k views

How to run scripts without typing the full path?

I'd like to know if there is a way to run program/shell script without typing full path: /opt/idea/bin/idea.sh
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700 votes
9 answers
1.8m views

What is the correct way to completely remove an application?

I've searched the net for such information and found different command lines, like these ones: sudo apt-get remove application sudo apt-get remove application* sudo apt-get remove --purge ...
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  • 7,433
177 votes
10 answers
396k views

Running programs in the background from terminal

How do I run a program in the background of a shell, with the ability to close the shell while leaving the program running? Lets say my UI is having problems or for some reason, I need to boot up a ...
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  • 2,247
678 votes
9 answers
2.0m views

What does "sudo apt-get update" do?

I am wondering what sudo apt-get update does? What does it update?
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  • 10.7k
51 votes
8 answers
128k views

How do I enter a file or directory with special characters in its name?

I want to enter the following folder in the terminal: Milano, Torino (Jan)-Compressed How should I write the command cd to enter this directory? Spaces and several other special characters like \, *...
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  • 1,978
458 votes
12 answers
840k views

Execute sudo without Password?

Inspired by this question.... I am the sole person using my system with 12.04. Every time I issue a sudo command; the system asks for the user password (which is good in its own way). However I was ...
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461 votes
16 answers
3.8m views

How do I run .sh scripts?

Whenever I open a .sh file, it opens it in gedit instead of the terminal. I can't find any option similar to Right Click → Open With → Other Application... → Terminal. How do I open this file in the ...
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  • 4,611
36 votes
9 answers
13k views

How can I get help on terminal commands?

I often see things like read man xyz For more information read xyz's man page. see info xyz so I wonder: How can I get help on terminal commands generally? What exactly are these man and ...
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  • 37.7k
925 votes
7 answers
3.1m views

How can I add a user as a new sudoer using the command line?

After I add a user using adduser, I can't see it via System > Administration > Users and Groups unless I log out and then log in again. Is that normal? Also, can I set a newly added user as a sudoer ...
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  • 10.6k
484 votes
8 answers
1.5m views

How to create a bootable Ubuntu USB flash drive from terminal?

Is there any way to create a bootable Ubuntu USB flash drive from the terminal without using any third-party applications like YUMI, Unetbootin, Startup Disk Creator, etc. I tried to create a ...
202 votes
17 answers
360k views

How to change LCD brightness from command line (or via script)?

To work around bug #1005495 (changing LCD brightness via hotkeys impossible), I'd like to have one command line query for increasing and one for reducing the brightness of my LCD. I could then map a ...
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  • 2,223
59 votes
7 answers
13k views

How can I easily share the output of a command or a text file with others?

I recently asked a question on Ask Ubuntu (or somewhere else), and a comment or answer asks me to paste the contents of some file or the output of a command to troubleshoot my problem. How do I do ...
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  • 136k
48 votes
2 answers
51k views

How do file permissions work?

Can you explain briefly the main concepts and command line tools used to manage file permissions?
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713 votes
9 answers
3.4m views

Change folder permissions and ownership

I would like the user to have full rights on this folder (as well as all sub-directories and files in it): ~/.blabla currently owned by root. I have found numerous posts (in this forum and ...
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  • 12.9k
112 votes
8 answers
171k views

How do I easily rename multiple files using command line?

One of the ways I quickly rename files in Windows is F2 > Rename > Tab (to next file) > Rename ... But in Ubuntu/Nautilus, I can't tab to next file. But being on Linux, I think there must ...
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  • 9,489
572 votes
20 answers
1.1m views

How do I fix my locale issue?

I am getting this message every time I do something like starting or stopping a service. perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: ...
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  • 6,476
53 votes
5 answers
276k views

Install Nvidia driver instead of nouveau

I've installed Ubuntu 14.04 and I'm experiencing a fuzzy/blurry screen and bad support for multiple screens. I realized that Ubuntu installs nouveau as default, but I need to install nvidia drivers, ...
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  • 631
20 votes
3 answers
73k views

How to run xrandr commands at startup in Ubuntu

How can I run the following xrandrcommand on startup? xrandr cvt 1368 768 xrandr --newmode "1368x768_60.00" 85.25 1368 1440 1576 1784 768 771 781 798 -hsync +vsync xrandr --addmode VGA1 ...
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463 votes
5 answers
921k views

What do the different colors mean in ls?

What do the different colours in Ubuntu's ls command mean? For example, when I type the ls command in one of my folders, I get one of the files in light green, the other (which is a folder) in blue ...
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  • 5,157
237 votes
5 answers
508k views

How to create a permanent "alias"? [duplicate]

If you create an alias for example: alias cls="clear" It exists untill you kill terminall session. When you start a new terminal window the alias doesn't exist any more. How to create "permanent" ...
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  • 4,841
21 votes
2 answers
63k views

Restore default apt repositories in sources.list from command line

I am looking for the best method to restore /etc/apt/sources.list to default from the command line. Is there no way to reference the source code of the package which generates this file or something ...
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15 votes
3 answers
128k views

How do I cd into a directory in the home folder?

How do I change directories to downloads, from the home folder, in the latest version Ubuntu 12.10? I tried cd /downloads, but it gave an error saying that there is no such directory.
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  • 159
1251 votes
10 answers
3.2m views

How do I save terminal output to a file?

How do I save the output of a command to a file? Is there a way without using any software? I would like to know how.
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  • 12.8k
67 votes
4 answers
132k views

Where to declare environment variables?

What are correct places for: Global environment variables meant to affect all users? User-specific environment variables?
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  • 54.1k
97 votes
5 answers
249k views

What is a tty, and how do I access a tty?

I keep hearing about these things known as tty's. what are they how can I access them what do they do?
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  • 58.8k
224 votes
7 answers
250k views

How can I shorten my command line (bash) prompt?

Currently it is: michael@Castle2012-Ubuntu-laptop01:~/Dropnot/webs/rails_v3/linker/spec/controllers$ Outside of renaming my machine and directory structure... How could I make it be something more ...
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212 votes
16 answers
260k views

How to change Gnome-Terminal title?

I have several instances of terminals running in my working environment, what I would like is to set a specific title for each one, in order to have a clear idea what purpose the specific terminal ...
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  • 6,965
122 votes
4 answers
350k views

How do I change mirrors in Ubuntu Server from regional to main?

I have a Lucid Server (10.04) set up and I would like to change the mirror from US (or any other country) to the Main Ubuntu Mirror. For example my two first entries in sources.list are: deb http://...
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30 votes
3 answers
120k views

How do I enable the "Universe" repository from the command line? [duplicate]

How do you use terminal to enable Universe source? Or any those 4 from Software Sources: Main, Universe, Restricted, Multiverse Main is on by default and Restricted is on if durring Ubuntu ...
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  • 4,748
195 votes
7 answers
1.7m views

How to install Chrome browser properly via command line?

I am trying to install chrome browser via command line. I tried this: $ apt-cache search chrome browser The results show that the proper term is "chrome-browser," so I tried that: $ sudo apt-get ...
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77 votes
7 answers
74k views

How to find out the terminal command of an application?

I want to use some applications shown on the Unity Launcher in a terminal, but I need to know the appropriate command to run them. How can I achieve that?
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166 votes
14 answers
262k views

How do you select the fastest mirror from the command line?

I want to update my sources.list file with the fastest server from the command line in a fresh Ubuntu Server install. I know this is trivially easy with the GUI, but there doesn't seem to be a simple ...
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  • 3,475
143 votes
3 answers
760k views

How do I create a script file for terminal commands?

In Windows I can write a file containing commands for cmd (usually .cmd or .bat files). When I click on those files it will open cmd.exe and run them commands the file contains. How would I do this ...
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  • 54.7k
135 votes
4 answers
107k views

What do the various dpkg flags like 'ii' 'rc' mean?

I frequently need to check which packages are installed, and I use the following command: dpkg -l | grep foo which gives the following output Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold | Status=Not/...
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  • 15.4k
506 votes
3 answers
1.3m views

How do I use variables in a sed command?

I tried the following code to replace QQ with ZZ, but it doesn't do what I want: var1=QQ sed -i 's/$var1/ZZ/g' $file However, this code does what I want: sed -i 's/QQ/ZZ/g' $file How do I use ...
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  • 16.2k
401 votes
4 answers
1.6m views

How to make a file (e.g. a .sh script) executable, so it can be run from a terminal

I have a script.sh file and type of this file is shellscript file. I want to make this file as application/x-executable file. How can I make it?
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421 votes
18 answers
596k views

How do I check the battery's status via the terminal?

I would like a command that displays the battery status in the terminal.
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  • 4,211
214 votes
20 answers
282k views

Running a .desktop file in the terminal

From what I can gather, .desktop files are shortcuts that allow application's settings to be customized. For instance, I have lots of them in my /usr/share/applications/ folder. If I open that ...
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  • 9,616
58 votes
5 answers
522k views

How to edit files in a terminal with nano?

Sometimes, a graphical text editor like gedit or kate cannot be used (because you're in a virtual console for example). Luckily, there are text editors for the terminal. An easy one is nano, but I ...
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  • 165k
57 votes
7 answers
110k views

su command + authentication failure

I am having problems with the su command. I know my password and I am typing it correctly but su indicates authentication failure. So I checked on the internet and then went into recovery mode and ...
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  • 725
74 votes
10 answers
62k views

How to set custom keyboard shortcuts from terminal?

How to set custom keyboard shortcuts from terminal for different Linux versions? Basically I want to know where Linux stores the keyboard shortcut files and how it can be edited. On my research I ...
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9 votes
2 answers
7k views

Switching between virtual console and GUI

How to switch between virtual console and GUI in Ubuntu? I wanted to see what key functions would allow me to switch between the two.
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848 votes
9 answers
2.6m views

How to install updates via command line?

When I log into my web server via SSH I see the information: 88 packages can be updated. 80 updates are security updates I tried apt-get update then apt-get upgrade but each time I log in I still ...
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  • 8,634
460 votes
13 answers
624k views

How can I suspend/hibernate from command line?

How can I suspend or hibernate my laptop using command line, without installing additional software?
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  • 4,603
135 votes
5 answers
384k views

How to connect and disconnect to a network manually in terminal?

Since the network manager is troubling me so much I want to replace it (possibly wicd orNM from ppa:volanin). I do not know how to connect and disconnect to the network through the terminal without ...
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  • 1,351
142 votes
9 answers
611k views

How do I connect to a WPA wifi network using the command line?

So basically, I'd like to use iwconfig to connect to my wifi network when I'm not inside X. But I just don't see a way to do it in the man page. Any idea?
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  • 3,980

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