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On 16.04, after trying the Ubuntu updater last night, it got hung up (on initramfs if I remember the details dialog correctly). After a long time I killed it and looked for solutions, of which I tried (I hope I remember all):

sudo dpkg --configure -a

-> Hangs

$ sudo apt-get --purge remove linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic linux-image-extra-4.4.0-112-generic
E: dpkg was interrupted, you must manually run 'sudo dpkg --configure -a' to correct the problem.

$ sudo dpkg --purge remove linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic linux-image-extra-4.4.0-112-generic
dpkg: warning: ignoring request to remove remove which isn't installed
dpkg: warning: ignoring request to remove linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic which isn't installed
(Reading database... 756101 files and directories currently installed.) 
Removing linux-image-extra-4.4.0-112-generic (4.4.0-112.135) ...
depmod: FATAL: could not load /boot/System.map-4.4.0-112-generic: No such file or directory
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postinst.d/apt-auto-removal 4.4.0-112-generic /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-112-generic 
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postinst.d/dkms 4.4.0-112-generic /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-112-generic 
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postinst.d/initramfs-tools 4.4.0-112-generic /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-112-generic
 update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-112-generic
depmod: WARNING: could not open /var/tmp/mkinitramfs_2OAOqm/lib/modules/4.4.0-112-generic/modules.order: No such file or directory
depmod: WARNING: could not open /var/tmp/mkinitramfs_2OAOqm/lib/modules/4.4.0-112-generic/modules.builtin: No such file or directory

$ uname -a
Linux tnt440s 4.4.0-109-generic #132-Ubuntu SMP Tue Jan 9 19:52:39 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

I also did, found somewhere on the interwebs:

sudo rm /var/lib/initramfs-tools/4.4.0-112-generic

I am now scared of a reboot as I have had broken kernels before (but it seems I am now still on kernel 4.4.0-109, and am looking for a way to fix the incompletely installed new kernel and get apt-upgrade to work again.

UPDATE:
I was able to remove all but the linux-image-extra package Trying to force install it (apt-get install -f) sent me to manually run dpkg --configure -a), but that again hung as above.

So as found here on Ubuntu Forums, I deleted the files in

/var/lib/dpkg/updates

which then allowed me to force install the package again - but it brings me to the original error: hanging on update-initramfs:

Selecting previously unselected package linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic.
(Reading database ... 756103 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic_4.4.0-112.135_amd64.deb ...
Done.
Unpacking linux-image-4.4.0-112-generic (4.4.0-112.135) ...
Setting up linux-firmware (1.157.15) ...
update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-112-generic
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Finally the dreaded reboot worked and let me perform a

dpkg --configure -a

after which I was able to install the kernel via apt-get install and the problem seems to be solved.

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