Virtualbox 5.0.40 is not working with the new kernel (4.13.0-26), but the new version of VBox (5.2) works fine.
Download it from VirtualBox page or add the source to your
deb http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/debian xenial contrib
If you use a different version of Ubuntu than 16.04, use the appropriate name instead of xenial.
Add Oracle public key:
wget -q https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox_2016.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -
Update repositories and install
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-5.2
On one of my laptops, VM didn't want to start before I removed virutalbox-dkms:
sudo apt-get remove virtualbox-dkms
After the update, I had a problem after starting the virtual-machine (see VirtualBox - RTR3InitEx failed with rc=-1912 (rc=-1912)). As suggested in the first comment, it had been fixed with the following call: