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I used this method for creating an Ubuntu 16.04 Persistent Live Flash Drive https://askubuntu.com/a/853839

When I try to upgrade:

    root@ubuntu:~# apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
3 not fully installed or removed.
After this operation, 0 B of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Setting up cryptsetup (2:1.6.6-5ubuntu2.1) ...
update-initramfs is disabled since running on read-only media
update-rc.d: warning: start and stop actions are no longer supported; falling back to defaults
insserv: Service checkroot has to be enabled to start service cryptdisks-early
insserv: exiting now!
update-rc.d: error: insserv rejected the script header
dpkg: error processing package cryptsetup (--configure):
 subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 1
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of ubiquity:
 ubiquity depends on cryptsetup; however:
  Package cryptsetup is not configured yet.

dpkg: error processing package ubiquity (--configure):
 dependency problems - leaving unconfigured
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of ubiquity-frontend-gtk:
 ubiquity-frontend-gtk depends on ubiquity (= 2.21.63.6); however:
  Package ubiquity is not configured yet.

dpkg: error processing package ubiquity-frontend-gtk (--configure):
 dependency problems - leaving unconfigured
No apport report written because the error message indicates its a followup error from a previous failure.
                          No apport report written because the error message indicates its a followup error from a previous failure.
                                                    Errors were encountered while processing:
 cryptsetup
 ubiquity
 ubiquity-frontend-gtk
E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)
root@ubuntu:~# 
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    You should avoid upgrading a persistent live system. You can update it sudo apt update, and you can install some new program packages, but do not perform a general upgrade, because it can overload the overlay system for persistence, where the original live system is overlayed with the data from the casper-rw file system (stored in a file or a partition). – sudodus Dec 15 '17 at 18:33
  • Thank you @sudodus Tell me please, so there is no way to use an persistent upgraded Ubuntu 16.04 Live usb, even after shutdown, restart? – XPDIN Dec 15 '17 at 19:07
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    If the iso file is rather new, the upgrade will be rather small (involve few packages) and will work. Otherwise I would not use that method. If it is important for you to have a fully up to date system (upgraded or even better, treated with sudo apt full-upgrade ) then you can create an installed system in a USB drive (the size should be at least 16 GB, and it is best to select a fast USB 3 pendrive or an SSD). See this link and links from it for more details, askubuntu.com/questions/786986/boot-ubuntu-from-external-drive/… – sudodus Dec 15 '17 at 19:13
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    Because my internal HDD is dead at all, I will use only the Live USB for the next weeks until I will buy a new internal HDD. I have been using the Ubuntu 16.04.3 iso for this persistent Live USB. ubuntu.com/download/desktop/… Are there any security or any other risks to use this Persistent Live USB as a full time OS without upgrades, if I don't have any 16 GB, or 3.0 USB stick? Thank you @sudodus – XPDIN Dec 15 '17 at 20:13
  • I think there are a some security upgrades since 16.04.3 was released. You could re-install your web browser to get the current version, which might be the most important security fix. Another alternative is to get the current development version of xenial 'Xenial Daily' (which will be released as 16.04.4 in the future). This way you will get a fully up to date system. Since it is during development, there might also be some bugs. but it will probably work rather well, iso.qa.ubuntu.com/qatracker/milestones/351/builds – sudodus Dec 15 '17 at 20:29

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