Does Ubuntu have the possibility to retrieve the log of the POST (Power On Self Test) phase? I apologize with you if my question seems silly; effectively I don't know if the BIOS stores a log in its EPROM memory during the POST phase. However, if so, has Ubuntu the possibility to read it?
As far as I know, BIOS are not storing any file. BIOS is running at a very early stage of the computer boot process and doesn't have dedicated memory to storage kind of files like log.
Some BIOS allows more verbose output during the startup by pressing ESC or some Fx key. You may consider asking a new question if you have a problem with your BIOS, maybe it will be easier to understand the source issue.