I upgraded to Ubuntu 17, and my eyes started to get tired very quickly (e.g. in 40 minutes).
It seems to be some problem with the OS, since it didn't happen with the older Ubuntu version, and it doesn't happen with Windows 10.
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One possible cause could be incorrect refresh rate and (or) resolution. This was a generic issue in the time of CRT monitors being, but we could experience similar issues also with the modern monitors. So, find the the monitor's specification and check what are the native values of the refresh rate and the resolution. Or find these values in Windows . Then use
xrandr to check the current values (the line marked with asterisk
*) and compare them with the default ones.
If this is the problem the next question should be - how do I change these values within the certain Ubuntu version?
If it is 17.10 on Wayland, you may try to find the native values under the menu Displays, as it is shown on the image from the @pomsky's answer. If they don't exist, you could try to follow this answer, where @Panther describes how to generate and enable custom resolution under Wayland.
You may try two things.
Click on the rightmost corner of the top bar and use the brightness slider to decrease screen's brightness.
Go to Settings > Devices > Displays and click on Night Light. You'll be able to turn on a feature which changes screen's colour temperature to a more soothing one.
There is a brilliant piece of software Redshift
for auto screen temperature adjustment. I found it very much relaxing for my eyes, please check this out.
Note: I was not aware of the Ubuntu 17 wayland support, suggest gnome Night light feature instead.
Might help to look if your discrete graphics card is the culprit.
I had this problem earlier that my laptop was heating a lot(with Linux, didn't happen with Windows) and causing me quickly to get tired and end up with burning eyes.
Try to install proper drivers for the graphics card. If it doesn't work, consider disabling the GPU from the BIOS.