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When we install a program using apt-get, after installed it's available in terminal, normally, when we just call "your name" independent of context directory we are.

On Windows, when we add a path to envoriment variables in variable PATH all programs or files in this path are available in terminal (prompt command) to be called.

In Ubuntu, how does it when we want to make a program callable but it is a standalone file installed without apt-get or aptitude?

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    Welcome to Ask Ubuntu. Like Windows you can add directory to the PATH variable. You can also create a bin directory in your home folder such as /home/andre/bin and put your programs in the bin folder. Ubuntu would know how to find them. – user68186 Oct 8 '17 at 2:27
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On Linux as well as on Windows we can add a path to the environment variable $PATH and all programs in this path will be available as shell commands. This topic is covered by the questions:

On Linux is also available and different approach. Here are few available standard directories where we can put our executable files or symbolic links to them. This topic is covered by the questions:

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