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I have Elementary OS Loki and Ubuntu 16.04 installed as dual boot on my laptop. It was working fine; during boot both the OS were displayed in the grub menu and I was able to select whichever I desired to use.

Recently, I updated my Elementary OS (basically sudo apt update and sudo apt upgrade). But after restarting, I only see elementary in the options and not my other Ubuntu. So, I booted into elementary OS and did sudo update-grub but still it did not detect my other Ubuntu. Following is what I get.

$ sudo update-grub          
Generating grub configuration file ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-92-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-92-generic
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-79-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-79-generic
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.0.0-kali1-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.0.0-kali1-amd64
Adding boot menu entry for EFI firmware configuration
done

I believe Elementary OS is based of the newest Ubuntu LTS that is 16.04. Can't I install two OS of the same version?

What's the deal here? I really need to access my other OS.

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I had almost done it initially. Just didn't go ahead and do update-grub again. So, this is how the issue was resolved.

I first installed os-prober by doing the following -

$ sudo apt install os-prober

Then, as mentioned earlier in my question, did -

$ sudo os-prober
/dev/sda2:Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS (16.04):Ubuntu:linux

And it was able to detect my other OS.

Then I went ahead and did -

$ sudo update-grub
Generating grub configuration file ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-92-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-92-generic
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-79-generic
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.4.0-79-generic
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.0.0-kali1-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.0.0-kali1-amd64
Found Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS (16.04) on /dev/sda2
Adding boot menu entry for EFI firmware configuration
done

And that was it. Now, both operating systems are visible in my grub menu.

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