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I have tried all the steps listed at Not enough free space to update. This is the "Not enough free space" message I get:

  1. The upgrade needs a total of 107 M free space on disk /boot. Please free at least an additional 22.3 M of disk space on /boot. Empty your trash and remove temporary packages of former installations using sudo apt-get clean.

This is all I have in my /boot partition:

dpkg -l "linux-image*" | grep "^i" 

ii linux-image-4.10.0-24-generic 4.10.0-24.28 amd64 Linux kernel image for version 4.10.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP 
ii linux-image-extra-4.10.0-24-generic 4.10.0-24.28 amd64 Linux kernel extra modules for version 4.10.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP 
ii linux-image-generic 4.10.0.24.26 amd64 Generic Linux kernel image

This tells me my /boot partition is 64% full:

sudo df -h Filesystem 

Size Used Avail  Use% Mounted on udev 
1.4G 0    1.4G   0%   /dev tmpfs 
276M 8.8M 267M   4%   /run /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root 
914G 16G  853G   2%   /tmpfs 
1.4G 1.8M 1.4G   1%   /dev/shm tmpfs 
5.0M 4.0K 5.0M   1%   /run/lock tmpfs 
1.4G 0    1.4G   0%   /sys/fs/cgroup /dev/sda1
236M 143M 81M    64%  /boot tmpfs 
276M 172K 276M   1%   /run/user/1000

I have emptied my trash and uninstalled old kernels. Do you have anything else I can try to remove excess content from /boot?

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    Before reading or trying my answer, o screenshot of gparted showing your disk would help to understand your problem without risk – koleygr Aug 20 '17 at 2:54
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My second paragraph is for upgrade version... not just kernel... but backup needed anyway and is a solution also to get rid of this problem forever

The easy solution is to boot from a live cd and use gparted to shrink the partition right to the /boot partition and then pull right (increase) the /boot partition. 250MB would be enough for now and at least next 5 years.

My suggestion is to take backup (Anyway need that before updates or using gparted) and then make a new install without boot partition (except possible efi_boot or grub_boot)... Separate boot partitions are not useful and causes such problems. Also, a fresh install is always a better option because many things fails on update sometimes and many other remains and not needed

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