After perusing through several answers here and trying them out, I'm stumped as to what's causing the slow wifi on my laptop.
For reference, I tested the wifi on my laptop both in Windows 7 and in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. I clocked an average down speed of ~28 Mbps on Windows and ~9 Mbps in Ubuntu.
I tried this Ask Ubuntu answer which brought my Ubuntu down speed to ~22 Mbps but my speeds go back down after the laptop comes back from sleep.
I used the wireless-info script to post my wifi information here.
Please let me know if there's any additional information needed and I'll get right on it. Thanks for your help.