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I had some issues with the installation of the desktop version of Ubuntu gnome (my graphic-card is not supported by default I had to install the right drive for it, before I get a shell thats not totally broken, even with the server install I had to input the driver installation command blind), so I decided to install Ubuntu server and then install ubuntu-gnome-desktop

Thats the state know. Everything is "fine", but there a two things I don't understand:

  1. after installing the desktop I had to run startx to get the visual desktop, after a reboot I got the login-screen by default.

  2. When I switch the tty with SUPER+ALT [F1,F2,...] there is my gnome-desktop running on tty2 and a login screen on tty1. When I try to log in on tty1 I end up on tty2 and on tty1 appease the login-screen again.

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For the first part of your question:

When you start your system, it's going to boot into a specific target, it can be "single user", "multi user", "graphical" or something else. Each system has a default target, let's say your default was graphical, when you are booting into a graphical target Ubuntu looks for a display manager to run, something like "gdm", "slim", "lightdm", etc and it can't find any because you don't have a desktop environment thus any login manager, so it fails to load a login manager.

Then you have installed "ubuntu desktop" which is unity with a login manager named "lightdm" however system is not going to run it instantly because it did before and it failed, however on next boot when it's trying to load a login manager "lightdm" is there and will be run.

startx is a script to initialize an X session, you can use it to load a session instead of using a login manager which asks for your user name and password and lets you to choose a desktop, startx looks for a file named xinitrc and based on its contains load a X session for you so what you did was loading a session without getting a login manager into the work.

For the second part, it might be some misconfiguration of lightdm, "X" or being installed on a server version which is not supposed to use a GUI, it needs more investigations however you can run:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure lightdm

It might be helpful.

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