How to accomplish this with LVM and a single encrypted partition
First of all 128M is too small for boot! I use 1G. Otherwise, what is bound to happen is that you may forget to remove old kernels and /boot will fill up, and you'll have to deal with the pain of trying to remove old kernels from the system so that you can get
apt-get to work again. Even with 1G, make sure you remove old kernels from time to time.
The next steps are not intended for novice users.
UPDATE: I have created a script that will perform the following operations for you and more! All you have to do is run it from the Live OS before installation. You can find a write-up on my blog.
Pre-installation from live OS
You want to setup LUKS and LVM while manually partitioning! I tested this on Ubuntu 16.04.2
Boot Ubuntu from a Live OS and select the option to try Ubuntu without installing. Follow the steps I've outlined below. Let's assume you're installing to /dev/sdb.
- Partition the drive with your tool of choice: I used fdisk to set mine up on an msdos partition table as follows:
- other partitions: existing OSs -- we don't care about these
- sdb1: /boot (1G)
- sdb2: LUKS partition (the rest of the disk)
- Setup LUKS
sudo cryptsetup luksFormat --hash=sha512 --key-size=512 --cipher=aes-xts-plain64 --verify-passphrase /dev/sdb2
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb2 CryptDisk
- While not necessary, it is a good idea to fill your LUKS partition with zeros so that the partition, in an encrypted state, is filled with random data.
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/CryptDisk bs=4M BEWARE, this could take a really long time!
- Setup LVM on /dev/mapper/CryptDisk
sudo pvcreate /dev/mapper/CryptDisk
sudo vgcreate vg0 /dev/mapper/CryptDisk
sudo lvcreate -n swap -L 2G vg0
sudo lvcreate -n root -L 10G vg0
sudo lvcreate -n home -l +100%FREE vg0
Installation from live OS
- Now you're ready to install. When you get to the "Installation type" portion of the install, choose the "Something else" option. Then manually assign the /dev/mapper/vg0-* partitions as you would like to have the configured. Don't forget to set /dev/sdb1 as /boot. the /boot partition must not be encrypted. If it is, we won't be able to boot. Change the "Device for boot loader installation" to /dev/sdb, and continue with installation.
- When installation is complete, don't reboot! Choose the option to "Continue Testing".
Post-installation configuration from live OS
This bit is really important if you want your system to boot! I spent quite a bit of time researching this to figure out these post-installation steps. In my case I was actually doing it because I wanted to customize the size of /boot on /dev/sda, but all that work should carry over to your situation as well.
- In a terminal, type the following and look for the UUID of /dev/sdb2. Take note of that UUID for later.
sudo blkid | grep LUKS
- The important line on my machine reads
/dev/sdb2: UUID="bd3b598d-88fc-476e-92bb-e4363c98f81d" TYPE="crypto_LUKS" PARTUUID="50d86889-02"
Next lets get the newly installed system mounted again so we can make some more changes.
sudo mount /dev/vg0/root /mnt
sudo mount /dev/vg0/home /mnt/home # this is probably not necessary
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/boot
sudo mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev # I'm not entirely sure this is necessary
sudo mount --bind /run/lvm /mnt/run/lvm
- (Only if you're using EFI):
sudo mount /dev/sd*/your/efi/partition /mnt/boot/efi
sudo chroot /mnt to access the installed system
- From the chroot, mount a couple more things
mount -t proc proc /proc
mount -t sysfs sys /sys
mount -t devpts devpts /dev/pts
- Setup crypttab. Using your favorite text editor, create the file /etc/crypttab and add the following line, changing out the UUID with the UUID of your disk.
CryptDisk UUID=bd3b598d-88fc-476e-92bb-e4363c98f81d none luks,discard
- Lastly, rebuild some boot files.
update-initramfs -k all -c
- Reboot, and the system should ask for a password to decrypt on boot!
Special thanks go to Martin Eve, EGIDIO DOCILE, and the folks at blog.botux.fr for tutorials they posted. By pulling pieces from their posts and doing a little extra trouble shooting, I was finally able to figure this out.
I tried this a number of times and failed over and over. The bit that I had to work out for myself based on error messages was
sudo mount --bind /run/lvm /mnt/run/lvm