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I decided to move Ubuntu 16.04 from the HHD (sdb) to the SSD (sda). Started in live-usb, copied the /media, updated the UUID in the fstab.

Next step is to make GRUB work on the SSD, so I tried to install GRUB, while in live-usb. Despite the final "Installation finished. No error reported." When I boot the computer in BIOS from the SSD disk, it still asks for a bootable disk.

The copied /media has grub 2.something

mint@mint ~ $ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/mint/SSD1 /dev/sda
grub-probe: error: failed to get canonical path of `/cow'.
Installing for i386-pc platform.
grub-install.real: warning: Sector 32 is already in use by the program `FlexNet'; avoiding it.  This software may cause boot or other problems in future.  Please ask its authors not to store data in the boot track.
Installation finished. No error reported.


sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 128.0 GB, 128035676160 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15566 cylinders, total 250069680 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x73b46703

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1            2048   233066495   116532224   83  Linux
/dev/sda2       233066496   250068991     8501248   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders, total 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xbbc58b91

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048   318919887   159458920    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2       318920702   976771071   328925185    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5       960151552   976771071     8309760   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sdb6       318920704   960151551   320615424   83  Linux

Partition table entries are not in disk order
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Solved with the following code for Ubuntu 16.04, as explained here

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
for dir in /dev /dev/pts /proc /sys /run; do
    mount --bind $dir /mnt$dir
done
chroot /mnt
update-grub2
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