I had the same issue recently, when I needed to connect my Logitech Keyboard and Mouse through USB 3.0 HUB.
They worked well in windows, but for some reason didn't worked in Linux, even if the receiver was detected by linux, and appeared in the list of USB devices.
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 2109:0100 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 002 Device 006: ID 174c:1153 ASMedia Technology Inc. ASM2115 SATA 6Gb/s bridge
Bus 002 Device 007: ID 17e9:6000 DisplayLink
Bus 002 Device 004: ID 2109:0813 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 002 Device 003: ID 2109:0813 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 2109:0812 VIA Labs, Inc. VL812 Hub
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 008: ID 06cb:0081 Synaptics, Inc.
Bus 001 Device 007: ID 8087:0a2b Intel Corp.
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 04f2:b5da Chicony Electronics Co., Ltd
Bus 001 Device 006: ID 2109:2813 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 2109:2813 VIA Labs, Inc.
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 046d:c52b Logitech, Inc. Unifying Receiver
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 2109:2812 VIA Labs, Inc. VL812 Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Tried several things, nothing helped me.
The only that worked for me is upgrading Unified Receiver Firmware from this page:
I needed to do it from windows, but after that upgrade it starts to work on linux + hub, and I notice also that periodic lags with keyboard were removed.