I'm not sure what caused this to happen, but it occurred after Ubuntu attempted to install kernel updates. I could no longer boot with the newest kernel. I booted with a previous kernel, cleared some space (the reason the update failed) and I could boot again. However, now I'm left with a broken package.
Simultaneously I was attempting to install Emulation Station. I got some errors during install which prompted me to clear space, which led to the above issue.
Finally, I'm left with a broken package that is hindering me from installing any new software. libsdl2-dev is broken according to synaptic and it can't seem to repair it. I attempted to reinstall via synaptic and had no luck. The following error is from letting it attempt repair:
(Reading database ... 385577 files and directories currently installed.) Preparing to unpack .../libsdl2-2.0-0_2.0.2+dfsg1-3ubuntu1.1_amd64.deb ... Unpacking libsdl2-2.0-0:amd64 (2.0.2+dfsg1-3ubuntu1.1) ... dpkg: error processing archive /var/cache/apt/archives/libsdl2-2.0-0_2.0.2+dfsg1-3ubuntu1.1_amd64.deb (--unpack): trying to overwrite '/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libSDL2-2.0.so.0', which is also in package libsdl2:amd64 2.0.3+z4~20140315-8621-1ppa1precise1 Errors were encountered while processing: /var/cache/apt/archives/libsdl2-2.0-0_2.0.2+dfsg1-3ubuntu1.1_amd64.deb Error in function: dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of libsdl2-dev: libsdl2-dev depends on libsdl2-2.0-0 (= 2.0.2+dfsg1-3ubuntu1.1); however: Package libsdl2-2.0-0:amd64 is not installed. dpkg: error processing package libsdl2-dev (--configure): dependency problems - leaving unconfigured
I've searched Google and found no posts regarding this specific dependency/package.