I installed libimobiledevice package and I can access the pictures of my iPhone using the files browser.
But my iPhone doesn't show up in Rhythmbox. Why is that? What could I do to transfer music into my iPhone in this case?
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The iPhone OS, called iOS, is constantly updated. With each update, it tends to break compatibility with the
libimobiledevice. This is why you can't use your iPhone with Ubuntu to transfer music, etc.
Accessing the pictures of the iPhone is more or less USB Storage-class communication, which doesn't change between revisions of the iOS. The core OS handling for music, however, changes, which breaks the compatibility.
The only way to transfer your music to your iPhone is, unfortunately, to be using iTunes, on either a Windows or a Mac machine. I do this from within a Windows VM within my Ubuntu system, passing through the USB for my iPhone right to the VM so it can be used (I use VMware, but VirtualBox will work for those who don't pay money to VMware for their stuff).