Ok. I want to install Ubuntu on an external hard drive as my sole operating system. I have a HP Pavillion dv5 laptop with no internal drive. I have been running the trial off a USB stick. When I try to install the full operating system to the external drive it tells me I need to redo the offset of one of the partitions. At this point I am totally lost. Can someone please help me out ?
You starting byte of sda1 is 65535, which is the last byte of the 128th sector. Your offset error of 3584 is 512 bytes less than 4096. I'd guess your start should be 65536, one more, to start at a sector, and fix the offset. Fix this and redo the install.
You can run with root privs. using the sudo command before the command, and entering your password. If you have been using the live media to run, the ubuntu account initially has the sudo capabilities -- if you added accounts, you would need to enter them into the /etc/sudoers file (from the ubuntu account initially).
If there's nothing on the disk yet, just run the install again, and select something else, then delete the sda1 partition, and re-add it starting one sector higher,65536. Don't use the logical volume unless you really need it, for encryption for example. See recommendation on partitioning. You should make a swap partition, 2G at lease, avoid /boot unless you need it (LVM for instance), make two 50G root partitions (use one, other one is for testing new releases, etc.), and a big data partition you can mount under your home directory. Since you have room, you can also put a 500M partition up front for future use as an EFI partition (move the disk to a new machine sometime). DOS disk partitioning limits you to 4 primary partitions, so make 3 primaries, and an extended for the rest of the logical partitions. Ubuntu does not care what kind of partition it boot from, but I'd use ESP, root, root, extended then in extended, data and swap.