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I configured my machine with DHCP. Where can I find the IP addresses of the name servers?

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The canonical location for the DNS resolvers on Linux is /etc/resolv.conf.

Since NetworkManager has taken over from ifconfig as the primary network management component, that file normally contains a single resolver, namely localhost:

$ cat /etc/resolv.conf
...
nameserver 127.0.1.1

NetworkManager, through dnsmasq, provides this local DNS resolver. dnsmasq is also the DHCP-client (and has various other roles), hence 'knows' the upstream DNS resolvers.

You can use nmcli (the NetworkManager command-line interface) to query its settings:

$ nmcli dev show | grep DNS
IP4.DNS[1]:                             10.103.0.24
IP4.DNS[2]:                             10.103.0.23

In the GUI click on the network indicator, and select "Connection Information" from the menu. The upstream DNS resolvers are listed there.

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You can get pretty complete information on a network interface using nmcli and you can narrow the output to the specific info you are looking for by piping it through grep

For Ubuntu 14.04:

nmcli dev list iface eth0 | grep DNS

For Ubuntu 16.04:

nmcli dev show eth0 | grep DNS

Sources: respactive man nmcli pages and testing.

In both instances change eth0 to your interface name which may be different than mine

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