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When you run a Postgres database and check all the processes with ps you can see comments which most likely are neither executing program name, nor its parameters. What are they?

 $ ps ax | grep [p]ostgres:
 1066 ?        Ss     0:00 postgres: checkpointer process                                                                                
 1067 ?        Ss     0:00 postgres: writer process                                                                                      
 1068 ?        Ss     0:00 postgres: wal writer process                                                                                  
 1069 ?        Ss     0:00 postgres: autovacuum launcher process                                                                         
 1070 ?        Ss     0:00 postgres: stats collector process  

I am not sure if this is specific to Postgres in any way.

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Any program can change what ps calls it, see man 3 setproctitle :

NAME
     setproctitle — set process title

LIBRARY
     Utility functions from BSD systems (libbsd, -lbsd)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <bsd/unistd.h>

     void
     setproctitle_init(int argc, char *argv[], char *envp[]);

     void
     setproctitle(const char *fmt, ...);

DESCRIPTION
     The setproctitle() library routine sets the process title that appears on
     the ps(1) command.

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