When you have run:
sudo make install
the necessary files are copied in relevant places in the system directories. It may put things in
/usr/local, may be in
/opt, may be got distributed throughout other relevant directories in the system. I have come across no package that keeps and runs from that directory. There should be a
README (or similar) file that should give a clear view of what will be done.
So you can remove the source directory safely, but there could be a
uninstall file that does exact opposite of
install i.e. it will remove all files copied so check if you have that. If present, better keep that.
As we are at it, you should use
checkinstall instead of
make install as
checkinstall makes a
.deb file out of the relevant files to be copied and you can manage it afterwards just by using any package manager e.g.
aptitude or from lower level by using
dpkg. You can install
sudo apt-get install checkinstall