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(Check for the solution to this problem at the end of this post)

I have a freshly installed server, ubuntu 16.04.1. Then I did an installation of MariaDB, following the guidelines on the MariaDB website. Then, rebooted the server. The /etc/apt/sources.list shows the next line for MariaDB :

deb [arch=i386,amd64,ppc64el] http://ftp.nluug.nl/db/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial main

When I now do an apt-get update, it shows indeed the repo :

...    
    Get:6 http://ftp.nluug.nl/db/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial/main i386 Packages [5,580 B]
    Get:7 http://ftp.nluug.nl/db/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial/main amd64 Packages [5,577 B]
    Get:8 http://ftp.nluug.nl/db/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial/main ppc64el Packages [5,592 B]

Next step was an apt-get dist-upgrade, which showed me a lot of packages that became obsolete (galera, mariadb-common...) and some packages to be removed (like mariadb-server)... which is weird, because I never asked to remove those packages...

The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  galera-3 iproute libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libencode-locale-perl libfcgi-perl
  libhtml-parser-perl libhtml-tagset-perl libhtml-template-perl libhttp-date-perl libhttp-message-perl libio-html-perl
  libjemalloc1 liblwp-mediatypes-perl libmariadbclient18 libmysqlclient18 libmysqlclient20 libterm-readkey-perl
  libtimedate-perl liburi-perl mariadb-common mysql-common socat
Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  mariadb-client-10.0 mariadb-client-core-10.0 mariadb-server mariadb-server-10.0 mariadb-server-core-10.0
The following packages will be upgraded:
  mariadb-common mysql-common
2 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 5 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

But... just to test what would happen, I accepted the upgrade. After the upgrade, the sources.list still showed the line for Mariadb as it was in the start of this post. But... when I now do an apt-get update... no more results for mariadb (weird again...)

# apt-get update
Hit:1 http://ftp.nluug.nl/db/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial InRelease
Hit:2 http://nl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial InRelease
Hit:3 http://nl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates InRelease
Get:4 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security InRelease [94.5 kB]
Hit:5 http://nl.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports InRelease
Fetched 94.5 kB in 0s (290 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done

And... since the dist-upgrade did remove mysql-server, I can also no longer connect to the database.

Leaving me with one big question... what happened with my MariaDB installation on 16.04.1 ?

And .. just for the fun of it, I just installed mariadb-server again with command apt-get install mariadb-server, but... this resulted in another error when I try to connect to the database :

# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
ERROR 1524 (HY000): Plugin 'unix_socket' is not loaded

=== What I did wrong ===

After some struggling my eye catched a differerence in the release of mariadb before the dist-upgrade and after the dist-upgrade.

It turned out my automated script to install mariadb "forgot" to do an apt-get update after I added the repo. This caused the stock version 10.0 to be installed instead of the wanted 10.1.

Then, when you do an upgrade at a later stage, it will see that it actually needed 10.1, so it will remove the 10.0 version. And since I was the one who created this nice script to install mariadb... I can only blame myself :-)

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As stated in the edited thread, the issue was caused by an incorrect installation of mariadb (forgot the apt-get update). Installing the correct version followed by the suggestion from Sinscary did do the trick.

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