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this is my first post so bear with me if I get anything wrong, and sorry about the formatting which probably isn't pretty.

I accidentally removed all my kernels and now Ubuntu 14.04 won't boot (other than to memtest). I tried other solutions which involved mounting directories and reinstalling the kernel, which did not work - so I decided I should just recover the little data I need from the main volume and reinstall Ubuntu altogether.

My problem now is that I don't have permission to see or copy the data on my main volume when I boot Ubuntu from live-USB ("Try Ubuntu"). I get the error message

This location could not be displayed. You do not have the permissions necessary to view the contents of “directory”.

How can I change permission on my main volume so I can recover the data?

Strangely enough it worked with a few .c-files I uploaded (that weren't really programs but notes from a lecture), but it does not work with actual C-projects where it does not even show me the contents of the directory.

sudo fdisk -l returns the following results:

Disk /dev/sda: 192.0 GB, 192048095232 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 23348 cylinders, total 375093936 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000cbad4

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048      499711      248832   83  Linux
/dev/sda2          501758   375093247   187295745    5  Extended
/dev/sda5          501760   375093247   187295744   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1993 MB, 1993342976 bytes
62 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1012 cylinders, total 3893248 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x20ac7dda

This doesn't look like a partition table
Probably you selected the wrong device.

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   ?  3224498923  3657370039   216435558+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2   ?  3272020941  5225480974   976730017   16  Hidden FAT16
/dev/sdb3   ?           0           0           0   6f  Unknown
/dev/sdb4        50200576   974536369   462167897    0  Empty

Partition table entries are not in disk order

Disk /dev/mapper/luks-e407b6dc-cbb3-4d1d-b5cb-96f98e4b42da: 191.8 GB, 191788744704 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 23316 cylinders, total 374587392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/luks-e407b6dc-cbb3-4d1d-b5cb-96f98e4b42da doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root: 183.7 GB, 183744069632 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 22338 cylinders, total 358875136 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root doesn't contain a valid partition table

Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-swap_1: 8040 MB, 8040480768 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 977 cylinders, total 15704064 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-swap_1 doesn't contain a valid partition table
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So I kind of found a solution myself: I changed the permission of the whole directory in the file browser (via right click -> permission), so I managed to recover the data. Thank you.

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