I have downloaded, installed - Sublime Text 3, RStudio, VLC, etc using the official procedures mentioned. If i access these programs via Terminal, by running their respective binaries, it works. However, via GUI - when I search for the applications - only VLC appears. So basically only way to run Sublime Text and RStudio for me is to access via Terminal. I have set the environment variable PATH in /etc/profile to directories that have binary files of these applications. Still problem persists. Surprisingly no one else has reported similar error before - of not being able to launch applications without CL.
Just Create a 'application_name'.desktop file and save it in /usr/share/applications
Here is the format of the desktop file:
[Desktop Entry] Version = <Version of the Application> Name = <Name of the Apllication not the binary> Exec=</path/to/binary> Icon=</path/to/icon> Terminal=False Type=Application Categories=<whatever the application falls into>
Enter the respective Names , binary and icons except the < and >
Here is an example of desktop file as @Zanna pointed out.