When I press Ctrl + Alt + T, Ubuntu 16.04 opens xterm and when I search for
gnome-terminal nothing is found. I searched for
terminal and the only 2 applications there are XTerm and UXTerm.
How do I get the gnome terminal back?
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Simply open any working terminal that you do have, and enter:
sudo apt-get install gnome-terminal
You should be good to go!
You can also see this thread
How to set custom keyboard shortcuts from terminal?
as to how to set a custom key command, so that
t opens the terminal or program you choose, specifically,
So, for example, if you later choose to use
xfce4-terminal or something else, you may also change that keyboard shortcut/ command to open that terminal emulator, instead. In addition, you may set other commands to open other programs, such as
e to open the file manager, or
a to open Audacity, etc, so long as those commands are not already in use.