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I tried to upgrade ubuntu with standard apt-get upgrade and ran into similar problems to what is described here: https://www.webhostingtalk.com/showthread.php?t=1315016

grub went through a reconfiguration step as part of that process (reconfiguration was command line but threw up a pseudo GUI) It failed on writing to /dev/sda and /dev/sdb so I had to continue without an installation (no other option)

Now any apt-get command fails and I think it's down to the following error with grub:

$ update-grub
/usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: failed to get canonical path of `none'.

or

$ sudo apt-get upgrade
<snip>
Setting up friendly-recovery (0.2.31) ...
/usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: failed to get canonical path of `none'.
dpkg: error processing package friendly-recovery (--configure):

apt-get -f install fails in a similar way.

$ dpkg --configure -a
Setting up grub-pc (2.02~beta2-29ubuntu0.3) ...
/usr/sbin/grub-probe: error: failed to get canonical path of `none'.
dpkg: error processing package grub-pc (--configure):
 subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 1
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of grub2:
 grub2 depends on grub-pc (= 2.02~beta2-29ubuntu0.3); however:
  Package grub-pc is not configured yet.

dpkg: error processing package grub2 (--configure):
 dependency problems - leaving unconfigured

My server is raid so I presume that is the cause?

[edit] this is likely the 'none' that is being referred to:

$ cat /etc/fstab
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/md/0 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/md/1 /boot ext3 defaults 0 0
/dev/md/2 / ext4 defaults 0 0

My assumption is that md0 is a rescue partition provided by my host (hetzner).

Should I be telling grub to ignore md0? How to do so?

Output of fdisk:

$ fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 447.1 GiB, 480103981056 bytes, 937703088 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00032e61

Device     Boot   Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1          2048   8390656   8388609     4G fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda2       8392704   9441280   1048577   512M fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sda3       9443328 937701040 928257713 442.6G fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/sdb: 447.1 GiB, 480103981056 bytes, 937703088 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00074c3d

Device     Boot   Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sdb1          2048   8390656   8388609     4G fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdb2       8392704   9441280   1048577   512M fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdb3       9443328 937701040 928257713 442.6G fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/md2: 442.5 GiB, 475133575168 bytes, 927995264 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/md0: 4 GiB, 4292804608 bytes, 8384384 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/md1: 511.7 MiB, 536543232 bytes, 1047936 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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A purge and reinstall fixed all apt problems:

sudo dpkg --purge grub-pc grub2 grub-gfxpayload-lists
sudo apt-get -f install
# the following gives the prompts:
sudo apt-get install grub-pc grub2 grub-gfxpayload-lists

I've restated the question better (and without the apt problems) here: grub2: update-grub failed to get canonical path of `none'

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