I had read this how-to manual, however, I'm not sure how to proceed with my partitions. Here is a list of my partitions:
I am using Ubuntu 14.04 and Windows 7.
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That huge unallocated space you have is perfect for enlarging your existing extended partition. Since Ubuntu can interact with NTFS (Windows) partitions, but Windows cannot interact with EXT4 (Linux) partitions, your best option is to create an NTFS partition in that free space.
/dev/sda4 and drag it to the right, then create another partition inside the free space.
Windows allows you to change the location of certain user folders, such as Downloads, Documents, Music, etc. You can do that from each folder's Properties. It would help with integration to change their locations to somewhere on the data partition.
You can then follow this answer to setup up shortcuts from Ubuntu to the corresponding directories on the data partition.
You should be able to access the windows drive from ubuntu (unless windows is only hibernated, then it's locked) therefore the easiest way is simply to store your personal data on the windows partition.. Downloads folder is configured in Web browser, documents in any office app you use...so it shouldn't require setting anything in the system
As has been said, Ubuntu is able to read your windows (NTFS format) partition just fine, except if it has been locked by windows (windows does that when it hibernates).
As of now, your best alternative is to have another NTFS partition for storing files you intend to use on both OSes. That "unallocated" space in your hard drive is perfect size for that. Click that, then "Add" and GPARTED will guide you through the process. IF you run into a problem (most likely you won't) regarding number of partitions: click on your /dev/sda4 partition, and resize it to the the maximum amount of space. The "unallocated" space will now be inside of that "extended" partition, and you'll be able to create a NTFS partition in there (following the previous steps).
I must point out that your Ubuntu installation is very small, and will run out of space quite easily. Considering you have plenty of free space, you should extend you ubuntu partitions a bit (or a lot). This should be done before you use up your unallocated space.
Your sda5 is where software will be installed, and sda6 is where your personal files are stored (eg. your Download folder - mine tends to get huge in little time). Resizing these partitions is easy and well documented here in askubuntu.
It looks like your disk is formatted in MBR mode, and as such can only use 4 partitions, so you can't use your unallocated disk space for a new shared partition. Your Windows partition is large enough, but your Ubuntu partition is tiny. I'd recommend extending your Ubuntu partition to use up all of your unallocated space. In Windows, be sure to turn off FAST BOOT and/or HIBERNATE, or you'll corrupt Windows if/when you mount the Windows partition whilst in Ubuntu. Then edit your Ubuntu FSTAB file to mount the Windows partition when booting Ubuntu, and you'll have your shared disk space. Just place your shared files into your user folder in the Windows partition. Cheers, Al
You can easily achieve this on your Linux without doing anything on your Windows. If you have already created the shared partition via Windows before, delete the partition and follow these steps.
For video reference watch https://youtu.be/NtlXZSHL6NE