does anybody know why when I install new applications they do not appear in the dash unless I log out or in some cases even restart the system? Thanks in advance.
Turns out this was a bug in 15.10 and made it into 16.04. It's been reported and marked as Confirmed. Hope a fix is released soon.
I had a similar issue for quite a while, and I tried every fix possible to get applications to appear, even so far as to remove Unity and install it once again. However, I discovered that Chrome had installed an app with unicode characters in the name. On Windows, it wasn't an issue at all, however, on Ubuntu, whenever this app was synced and installed, the dash stopped working like it should. Upon removing the app from chrome://apps, my dash returned to a working state. So could it be possible that apps/profiles which use special characters might be messing with the functionality of the dash?