First, your partitioning is wasteful. A basic installation requires one partition, for root (
/). (Another may be needed for the boot loader; more on that later.) In this configuration, all directories and subdirectories are on this partition. When you create another partition, it's mounted somewhere that you specify in this directory tree, thus relieving some of the space requirements on root (
/) and enabling various benefits.
The problem with your setup is that devoting an entire disk to some of your partitions is wasteful:
/usr is not likely to hold more than about 20 GB of files. These files are the bulk of the Linux system, so putting
/usr on a hard disk and root (
/) on an SSD will actually degrade performance compared to putting both on the SSD. The only reason I'd do this is if the SSD is tiny -- and such a tiny SSD suggests an old one, which might no longer be reliable.
- The EFI System Partition (ESP) holds just a few megabytes of files, but for various reasons related to EFI quirks, I recommend making it 550 MiB or larger -- but certainly not big enough to devote a whole disk to it, assuming a non-ancient disk. Furthermore, the ESP is used only at boot time or when updating the boot loader. Thus, devoting an entire SSD to the ESP means throwing away the SSD's speed benefits.
A better plan is to use your SSD(s) for a root (
/) filesystem without a separate
/usr filesystem, to put
/home on your hard disks, and to create a separate ESP wherever it's convenient. If you want to use all four of your disks, you should seriously consider using Logical Volume Management (LVM), which enables combining multiple partitions (physical volumes, in LVM-speak) into one volume group, which is then carved up into logical volumes that hold your filesystems. (Note: Logical volumes are not the same as logical partitions, which are an unrelated MBR partitioning construct.) You can therefore create a single big logical volume that spans multiple disks. Controlling the split between your SSDs and hard disks requires more advanced LVM techniques, or you could create two volume groups, one for your hard disks and one for the SSDs.
Ubuntu let me choose where to install the bootloader and i choosed
When installing in EFI/UEFI mode, the Ubuntu installer does not prompt for where to install the boot loader. Instead, it detects the ESP and automatically installs the boot loader there. Thus, I suspect you may have accidentally booted in BIOS/CSM/legacy mode. See my page on the CSM for further information on this topic, including tips on controlling how you boot.
This problem may well be why you received an error when installing GRUB. In a BIOS-mode install, GRUB works best with a BIOS Boot Partition, which you probably didn't create. If it's not present, the Ubuntu installer will complain. I can't be sure of this, though, because you haven't said what the error message was. (Side note: When asking for help, always present the complete error message. Nine times out of ten, summaries omit the most important details.)
That said, I'm not sure what caused the
error: failure reading sector 0xXXX hd1 message you report getting from GRUB. It could be related to the installation error, or it could be that your disk is defective.
Is there a way i could format
sdd and install the EFI partition and a bootloader (which is able to boot linux and macosx)
Hold the phone! Are you saying this is a dual-boot with OS X? If so, that's a critical detail, and detailed information on your partitions is required to give a coherent answer to your question. Please post that information. (The output of
sudo parted -l should do the trick. Be sure to edit your original question; do not try to cram that information into a comment -- but do add a comment to this reply so I'll be informed of your new information.)
In EFI mode, typing
sudo grub-install causes it to install to the ESP (I believe the one mounted at
/boot/efi by default, but I'm not 100% positive of that). Thus, there's no need to specify a disk device. Certainly it's not installed to a whole-disk device, but to a partition. Thus, any prompt you're seeing in the Ubuntu installer about this is misleading. It's possible that the system is getting confused because you've got so many disks, and it would work better if you'd create an ESP on
Dual-booting a standard PC (you say it's a Supermicro board) with Linux and OS X is tricky at best. This practice is even of debatable legality in many countries. I don't know what this forum's policy is on discussing the topic, but certainly, when you get to actually configuring that part of it, you're better off asking on a Hackintosh-specific forum.
Using a separate
/usr partition used to be common practice, but is rare today. I don't know offhand if Ubuntu even supports this configuration any more. If it does, it shouldn't take anything particularly special to set it up; however, I advise you to be very certain about where the huge program files you're anticipating will go. Even a heavily-loaded Ubuntu system is unlikely to need more than 20-30 GiB of disk space. Many big programs store their files in users' home directories or in particular subdirectories that might be better split off. Doing this may be better than putting
/usr on your hard disk, since you'll see a speed drop when you do that. If you could say what programs you're installing that require massive amounts of space, perhaps somebody could offer better guidance on this score.