Both your virtualbox and extension versions match. That's a critical part of the process.
To solve the group problem use the commands
sudo addgroup vboxusers and
sudo adduser USERNAME vboxusers where USERNAME is your user name. Do both these things on the host. logout and back in for this to take effect.
Note that vboxsf which you have listed in your groups is actually a filesystem type used by the mount command.
Download the correct extension pack from this page and when prompted open it with Virtualbox.
The final step is to setup USB support on your VM, opening setings for the VM in virtualbox with the VM shutdown, selecting USB and enabling USB 2.0 and adding and activating filters as needed. See Below:
Note: In the recent past USB 3.0 (XHCI) controllers were not supported but this functionality was added in Virtual Box 5.0
Further information is available in the official documentation.If that doesn't sort it for you, drop me a comment and I'll expand on this.