How do I edit an invalid sudoers file? It throws below error and it's not allowing me to edit again to fix it.

Here is what happens:

$ sudo visudo

>>> /etc/sudoers: syntax error near line 28 <<<
sudo: parse error in /etc/sudoers near line 28
sudo: no valid sudoers sources found, quitting

12 Answers 12

up vote 318 down vote accepted

On a modern Ubuntu system (and many other GNU/Linux distributions), fixing a corrupted sudoers file is actually quite easy, and doesn't require rebooting, using a live CD, or physical access to the machine.

To do this via SSH, log in to the machine and run the command pkexec visudo. If you have physical access to the machine, SSH is unnecessary; just open a Terminal window and run that pkexec command.

Assuming you (or some other user) are authorized to run programs as root with PolicyKit, you can enter your password, and then it will run visudo as root, and you can fix your /etc/sudoers.

If you need to edit one of the configuration files in /etc/sudoers.d (which in uncommon in this situation, but possible), use pkexec visudo -f /etc/sudoers.d/filename.

If you have a related situation where you have to perform additional system administration commands as root to fix the problem (also uncommon in this circumstance, but common in others), you can start an interactive root shell with pkexec bash. Generally speaking, any non-graphical command you'd run with sudo can be run with pkexec instead.

(If there is more than one user account on the system authorized to run programs as root with PolicyKit, then for any of those actions, you'll be asked to select which one you want to use, before being asked for your password.)

If that doesn't work--for example, if there are no users authorized to run programs as root via PolicyKit--then boot from an Ubuntu live CD (like the CD you probably used to install Ubuntu) and mount the filesystem for the installed system. You can do this by running sudo parted -l to view your partitions--there is probably just one ext4 partition, and that's the root filesystem.

Suppose the installed Ubuntu system's root filesystem is on /dev/sda1. Then you could mount it with sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt. Then you can edit the installed system's sudoers file with sudo nano -w /mnt/etc/sudoers. Or, even better, you can edit it with

sudo visudo -f /mnt/etc/sudoers

(which will prevent you from saving a sudoers file with incorrect syntax).

  • 7
    pkexec /usr/sbin/visudo worked on debian 7 – marinara Mar 5 '14 at 1:33
  • Couldn't they also just boot into recovery mode? – Seth Oct 11 '14 at 16:43
  • 10
    HOLY COW! Thanks a LOT! Saved my bacon. Added a file as suggested into etc/sudoers.d/ directory USING A REGULAR TEXT EDITOR (D-O-N-T__D-O__T-H-A-T!!!). Lost all ability to do elevated privileges, INCLUDING, editing the offending file. This helped edit the file. Weird though, I had to edit /etc/sudoers first, then it found the errors in the other file and opened that for me. EVEN WEIRDER, the directive in /etc/sudoers file 'inlcudedir /etc/sudoers.d' was commented out, and it still includes it. – Dennis Apr 5 '15 at 3:15
  • 3
    @Dennis Somewhat confusingly, #include directives in sudoers files are treated specially; the leading # does not cause the rest of the line to be interpreted as a comment, in that case. As man sudoers says: "The pound sign (‘#’) is used to indicate a comment (unless it is part of a #include directive or unless..." See also visudo: #includedir sudoers.d (archived from – Eliah Kagan Apr 5 '15 at 3:49
  • 5
    My user is sudoer but i got this error: Error executing command as another user: Not authorized – SuB Oct 30 '16 at 10:05

Always use visudo to edit your sudoers file, never edit it directly yourself. It will prevent you saving it to disk unless it validates.

  • 12
    hindsight is 20/20 – code_monk Jan 9 '15 at 1:57
  • 4
    It won't prevent disaster. It's easy enough to validly deny yourself. – Joshua Oct 5 '15 at 22:02
  • Can visudo be used by scritps? If so, how? – Lukas Jul 7 '16 at 15:01
  • I don't have visudo installed. So I did pkexec vim. Then it shows the list of users and asks for password. When I provide password, it throws error as " Error executing command as another user: Not authorized". Please help – Shyamkkhadka May 24 at 5:48

Type in:

pkexec visudo

Then change last line

#includedir /etc/sudoers


#includedir /etc/sudoers.d

It should solve your problem.

  • 1
    I've noticed that removing the leading # from #includedir causes syntax errors, the # is part of the directive, at least on Ubuntu 12.10. – SAFX Apr 5 '13 at 2:46
  • That just saved me a lot of headache. Thanks a ton :) – Nitroware Jul 16 '17 at 18:29
  • I don't have visudo installed. So I did pkexec vim. Then it shows the list of users and asks for password. When I provide password, it throws error as " Error executing command as another user: Not authorized". Please help – Shyamkkhadka May 24 at 5:48

if anyone else like me didn't have pkexec installed, or was not able to run vi, visudo, nano or any other editor to change sudoers file you can be sure with this process.. I was saved with this:

  • reboot
  • hold shift key while booting to have option for recovery mode (enter it)
  • enter command line as root (second last option at my grub menu)
  • remount boot device for rw, and apply exec right for user, and edit file

    mount -n -o remount,rw /
    chmod u+x /etc/sudoers
    nano /etc/sudoers

fix that mistake and be happy :)

  • While pkexec solution suggested by @eliah-kagan seems to be easier, this one is more universal. On my machine it turned out that there is no pkexec installed and of course I could not install it because sudo apt-get install pkexec somehow did not work. – running.t Oct 15 '15 at 14:06

There is nothing wrong #include sudoer.d removing #include sudoer.d won't make any difference.

But please make sure you don't have any syntax errors. I had same issue but and spent hours to fix and just figured out they are syntax errors. Refer to manual and make them right.

For example Say your username is : dolly I used following which is wrong


correct syntax is

dolly ALL = (ALL) ALL //give permission to everything, not good


dolly ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr/bin/thurderbird //good, give specific permission

hope this helps

  • A better approach than making sure you don't have syntax errors is to always use visudo when editing these files, which makes sure you don't have syntax errors for you, before it modifies file. visudo is not just for editing /etc/sudoers--it will also create and edit files in /etc/sudoers.d. It will also work with whatever text editor you want. See the manpage for details. – Eliah Kagan Jul 3 '12 at 0:12
  • As for giving specific permission, please note that this is only useful for very simple commands/apps, because any sufficiently complex app (including thunderbird, which should never be run as root anyway) will effectively give the user full system access when run as root. Even seemingly simple functionality opens the door to full root access. For example, a user who can run a program that can save a file to an arbitrary location as root can gain full root access (they can install their own /etc/sudoers, or if syntax limitations prevent that, they can install their own /etc/crontab). – Eliah Kagan Jul 3 '12 at 0:16

If you messed up your sudoers file, you'll need to:

  • Reboot into recovery mode (hit escape during boot, choose the recovery mode option on the grub screen)
  • Choose the 'Enable networking' option (if you don't your filesystem will be mounted as read-only. who knew)
  • Chosee the 'Drop to root shell' option
  • run visudo, fix your file
  • Reboot with normal grub option

source :-

  • Hi, does it removes the iptables, files of existing system ? – Shyamkkhadka May 24 at 7:48

run recovery mode then type this

chown -R root:root /etc/sudoers.d
chmod u=rwx,g=rx,o=rx /etc/sudoers.d/
chmod u=r,g=r,o= /etc/sudoers.d/*

only the group and user root should have read privelege

You can edit your boot entry while in grub as well.

Simply reboot your pc, and wait for grub to show. Then press "e" on the "Ubuntu" entry to edit it.

Look for a line with "linux = " or "kernel = " and simply add an "single" to the end of that line.

Then press F10 to boot this temporarily modified boot entry. This will give you a shell (without GUI) with root rights and you can edit the sudoers file with like nano /etc/sudoers back to its previous state.

Then reboot and its done.

You can also login as root on a tty console with Ctrl+Fn (Fn from 1 to 6) and run visudo.

pkexec visudo

then revert your mistakes

  • 1
    not necessary to use pkexec – Braiam Jan 1 '14 at 12:01
  • @Braiam visudo has to be run as root. If sudo doesn't work, pkexec sometimes does. This is covered by my earlier answer... but it is a correct answer, visudo by itself (when not run as root) will not work, and there may be value in correct, brief answers even when their recommendations overlap considerably with other answers. Of course, if one goes into recovery mode, that's a root shell and then neither sudo nor visudo is necessary for commands like pkexec. Maybe that's what you mean... – Eliah Kagan Mar 29 '14 at 5:30

I found the bug. It is in the last two lines of the default /etc/sudoers file. Remove the following entries from the end of the /etc/sudoers file with visudo.

#includedir /etc/sudoers.d
  • 1
    That seems like a related, but different situation from this one. In this situation, the problem isn't that there are bad files (or wrong permissions) in /etc/sudoers.d, but that /etc/sudoers was itself corrupt. – Eliah Kagan May 29 '12 at 6:32

In Ubuntu 16.04 running on a VirtualBox (shouldn't make a difference), the above methods didn't work for me (invalid row in the end of the file). What did work was:

  1. Restart the VirtualBox
  2. Let it boot normally, until it asks for your username & password in the console
  3. Login normally with your username
  4. Then when you end up in the console (provided your box doesn't boot into a GUI), simply give the command su - and then give your own username's password.
  5. It should now end up in root@ubuntu-xenial:~# prompt, if the /etc/sudoers isn't too broken or empty. Not sure what would happen in that case.
  6. Then you can simply run visudo and fix the file.
  7. Then Ctrl + X and it will prompt to Save modified buffer. Press Y and Enter
  8. Restart the box and it should work now.

In case your /etc/sudoers is empty or missing something, and you can edit it, then here's the contents of mine:

Defaults env_reset
Defaults mail_badpass
Defaults secure_path="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/snap/bin"


%admin ALL=(ALL) ALL


protected by Braiam Mar 7 '14 at 23:50

Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).

Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.