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I have Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty Tahr) installed on my laptop. It was working fine, but then I occidentally deleted the first partition which has the EFI stuff which is mounted to /boot/efi by default.

But after I deleted the partition, I reformatted it to FAT32, set it to mount automatically to /boot/efi, and copied the EFI files from another computer similar to mine. After that I can manually boot to the system after passing through the GRUB menu and can do the root=(hd...) and configfile /boot/grub/grub.cfg.

Then the system boots to the my Ubuntu installation, but after running sudo update-grub and updating the /etc/fstab file with the correct UUID of the EFI device I still have to manually boot; it won't boot on it's own.

Finally, I used the boot repair tool to create this boot repair summary.
So, how can I make Ubuntu boot automatically like it was before? Note: No dual-boot here, just one Ubuntu 14.04 installation.

This is the Boot Repair output:

Boot Info Script e7fc706 + Boot-Repair extra info      [Boot-Info 9Feb2015]


============================= Boot Info Summary: ===============================

 => No boot loader is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda.

sda1: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       vfat
    Boot sector type:  FAT32
    Boot sector info:  No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
    Operating System:
    Boot files:        /EFI/ubuntu/MokManager.efi /EFI/ubuntu/grubx64.efi
                       /EFI/ubuntu/shimx64.efi

sda2: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       ext4
    Boot sector type:  -
    Boot sector info:
    Operating System:  Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS
    Boot files:        /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab
                       /boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf

sda3: __________________________________________________________________________

    File system:       swap
    Boot sector type:  -
    Boot sector info:

============================ Drive/Partition Info: =============================

Drive: sda _____________________________________________________________________

Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121601 cylinders, total 1953525168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes

Partition  Boot  Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors  Id System

/dev/sda1                   1 1,953,525,167 1,953,525,167  ee GPT


GUID Partition Table detected.

Partition    Start Sector    End Sector  # of Sectors System
/dev/sda1           2,048     1,050,623     1,048,576 Data partition (Windows/Linux)
/dev/sda2       1,050,624 1,936,986,111 1,935,935,488 Data partition (Linux)
/dev/sda3   1,936,986,112 1,953,523,711    16,537,600 Swap partition (Linux)

"blkid" output: ________________________________________________________________

Device           UUID                                   TYPE       LABEL

/dev/sda1        207B-0881                              vfat
/dev/sda2        355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3   ext4
/dev/sda3        d2b8d8bf-11f3-4c40-8883-b209f461c842   swap

========================= "ls -l /dev/disk/by-id" output: ======================

total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb 23 15:08 ata-ST1000LM024_HN-M101MBB_S32XJ9DF913130 -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 ata-ST1000LM024_HN-M101MBB_S32XJ9DF913130-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 ata-ST1000LM024_HN-M101MBB_S32XJ9DF913130-part2 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 ata-ST1000LM024_HN-M101MBB_S32XJ9DF913130-part3 -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb 23 14:59 ata-TSSTcorp_CDDVDW_SU-228FB_S12H6YHF5050Z8 -> ../../sr0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb 23 14:59 usb-SanDisk_Cruzer_Switch_4C530301300708123022-0:0 -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 Feb 23 15:08 wwn-0x50004cf20e1127da -> ../../sda
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 wwn-0x50004cf20e1127da-part1 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 wwn-0x50004cf20e1127da-part2 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Feb 23 14:59 wwn-0x50004cf20e1127da-part3 -> ../../sda3

================================ Mount points: =================================

Device           Mount_Point              Type       Options

/dev/sda1        /boot/efi                vfat       (rw)
/dev/sda2        /                        ext4       (rw,errors=remount-ro)


=========================== sda2/boot/grub/grub.cfg: ===========================

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
  set have_grubenv=true
  load_env
fi
if [ "${next_entry}" ] ; then
   set default="${next_entry}"
   set next_entry=
   save_env next_entry
   set boot_once=true
else
   set default="0"
fi

if [ x"${feature_menuentry_id}" = xy ]; then
  menuentry_id_option="--id"
else
  menuentry_id_option=""
fi

export menuentry_id_option

if [ "${prev_saved_entry}" ]; then
  set saved_entry="${prev_saved_entry}"
  save_env saved_entry
  set prev_saved_entry=
  save_env prev_saved_entry
  set boot_once=true
fi

function savedefault {
  if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then
    saved_entry="${chosen}"
    save_env saved_entry
  fi
}
function recordfail {
  set recordfail=1
  if [ -n "${have_grubenv}" ]; then if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then save_env recordfail; fi; fi
}
function load_video {
  if [ x$feature_all_video_module = xy ]; then
    insmod all_video
  else
    insmod efi_gop
    insmod efi_uga
    insmod ieee1275_fb
    insmod vbe
    insmod vga
    insmod video_bochs
    insmod video_cirrus
  fi
}

if [ x$feature_default_font_path = xy ] ; then
   font=unicode
else
insmod part_gpt
insmod ext2
set root='hd0,gpt2'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt2 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt2  355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
else
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
fi
    font="/usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2"
fi

if loadfont $font ; then
  set gfxmode=auto
  load_video
  insmod gfxterm
  set locale_dir=$prefix/locale
  set lang=en_US
  insmod gettext
fi
terminal_output gfxterm
if [ "${recordfail}" = 1 ] ; then
  set timeout=30
else
  if [ x$feature_timeout_style = xy ] ; then
    set timeout_style=hidden
    set timeout=0
  # Fallback hidden-timeout code in case the timeout_style feature is
  # unavailable.
  elif sleep --interruptible 0 ; then
    set timeout=0
  fi
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/light-gray
if background_color 44,0,30,0; then
  clear
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
function gfxmode {
    set gfxpayload="${1}"
    if [ "${1}" = "keep" ]; then
        set vt_handoff=vt.handoff=7
    else
        set vt_handoff=
    fi
}
if [ "${recordfail}" != 1 ]; then
  if [ -e ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt ]; then
    if hwmatch ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt 3; then
      if [ ${match} = 0 ]; then
        set linux_gfx_mode=keep
      else
        set linux_gfx_mode=text
      fi
    else
      set linux_gfx_mode=text
    fi
  else
    set linux_gfx_mode=keep
  fi
else
  set linux_gfx_mode=text
fi
export linux_gfx_mode
menuentry 'Ubuntu' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-simple-355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3' {
    recordfail
    load_video
    gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
    insmod gzio
    insmod part_gpt
    insmod ext2
    set root='hd0,gpt2'
    if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt2 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt2  355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
    else
      search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
    fi
    linux    /boot/vmlinuz-3.16.0-60-generic.efi.signed root=UUID=355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
    initrd    /boot/initrd.img-3.16.0-60-generic
}
submenu 'Advanced options for Ubuntu' $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-advanced-355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3' {
    menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 3.16.0-60-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.16.0-60-generic-advanced-355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        gfxmode $linux_gfx_mode
        insmod gzio
        insmod part_gpt
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd0,gpt2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt2 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt2  355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 3.16.0-60-generic ...'
        linux    /boot/vmlinuz-3.16.0-60-generic.efi.signed root=UUID=355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 ro  quiet splash $vt_handoff
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd    /boot/initrd.img-3.16.0-60-generic
    }
    menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 3.16.0-60-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-3.16.0-60-generic-recovery-355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3' {
        recordfail
        load_video
        insmod gzio
        insmod part_gpt
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd0,gpt2'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt2 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt2  355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3
        fi
        echo    'Loading Linux 3.16.0-60-generic ...'
        linux    /boot/vmlinuz-3.16.0-60-generic.efi.signed root=UUID=355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 ro recovery nomodeset
        echo    'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
        initrd    /boot/initrd.img-3.16.0-60-generic
    }
}

### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###

### END /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_uefi-firmware ###
menuentry 'System setup' $menuentry_id_option 'uefi-firmware' {
    fwsetup
}
### END /etc/grub.d/30_uefi-firmware ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries.  Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment.  Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
if [ -f  ${config_directory}/custom.cfg ]; then
  source ${config_directory}/custom.cfg
elif [ -z "${config_directory}" -a -f  $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then
  source $prefix/custom.cfg;
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

=============================== sda2/etc/fstab: ================================

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sda2 during installation
UUID=355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# /boot/efi was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=207B-0881  /boot/efi       vfat    defaults        0       1
# swap was on /dev/sda3 during installation
UUID=d2b8d8bf-11f3-4c40-8883-b209f461c842 none            swap    sw              0       0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

====================== sda2/boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf: =======================

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## /boot/extlinux/extlinux.conf
##
## IMPORTANT WARNING
##
## The configuration of this file is generated automatically.
## Do not edit this file manually, use: extlinux-update


default l0
prompt 1
timeout 50

include themes/debian/theme.cfg
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

============== sda2: Version of COM32(R) files used by Syslinux: ===============

 boot/extlinux/chain.c32            :  COM32R module (v4.xx)

========= Devices which don't seem to have a corresponding hard drive: =========

sdb


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION :
=================== log of boot-repair 2016-02-23__15h08 ===================
boot-repair version : 4ppa35
boot-sav version : 4ppa35
glade2script version : 3.2.2~ppa47~saucy
boot-sav-extra version : 4ppa35
boot-repair is executed in installed-session (Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS, trusty, Ubuntu, x86_64)
CPU op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-3.16.0-60-generic.efi.signed root=UUID=355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 ro quiet splash vt.handoff=7

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


=================== os-prober:
/dev/disk/by-uuid/355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3:The OS now in use - Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS CurrentSession:linux

=================== blkid:
/dev/sda1: UUID="207B-0881" TYPE="vfat"
/dev/sda2: UUID="355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3" TYPE="ext4"
/dev/sda3: UUID="d2b8d8bf-11f3-4c40-8883-b209f461c842" TYPE="swap"

disk/by-uuid/355dd0f2-70a0-4000-bc1a-47498e2213c3 (sda) has unknown type. Please report this message to boot.repair@gmail.com

1 disks with OS, 1 OS : 1 Linux, 0 MacOS, 0 Windows, 0 unknown type OS.

Linux not detected by os-prober on sda2. Please report this message to boot.repair@gmail.com

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util sfdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


=================== //etc/grub.d/ :
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root      4096 Jan  7 12:43 grub.d
total 76
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  9791 Dec 17 16:00 00_header
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  6058 May  8  2014 05_debian_theme
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11608 May 15  2014 10_linux
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 10412 May 15  2014 20_linux_xen
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1992 Mar 12  2014 20_memtest86+
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11692 May 15  2014 30_os-prober
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1416 May 15  2014 30_uefi-firmware
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   214 May 15  2014 40_custom
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root   216 May 15  2014 41_custom
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root   483 May 15  2014 README




=================== //etc/default/grub :

# If you change this file, run 'update-grub' afterwards to update
# /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
# For full documentation of the options in this file, see:
#   info -f grub -n 'Simple configuration'

GRUB_DEFAULT=0
GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=0
GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT_QUIET=true
GRUB_TIMEOUT=10
GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=""

# Uncomment to enable BadRAM filtering, modify to suit your needs
# This works with Linux (no patch required) and with any kernel that obtains
# the memory map information from GRUB (GNU Mach, kernel of FreeBSD ...)
#GRUB_BADRAM="0x01234567,0xfefefefe,0x89abcdef,0xefefefef"

# Uncomment to disable graphical terminal (grub-pc only)
#GRUB_TERMINAL=console

# The resolution used on graphical terminal
# note that you can use only modes which your graphic card supports via VBE
# you can see them in real GRUB with the command `vbeinfo'
#GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480

# Uncomment if you don't want GRUB to pass "root=UUID=xxx" parameter to Linux
#GRUB_DISABLE_LINUX_UUID=true

# Uncomment to disable generation of recovery mode menu entries
#GRUB_DISABLE_RECOVERY="true"

# Uncomment to get a beep at grub start
#GRUB_INIT_TUNE="480 440 1"



/boot/efi detected in the fstab of sda2: UUID=207B-0881   (sda1)

=================== efibootmgr -v
BootCurrent: 001A
Timeout: 0 seconds
BootOrder: 001A,001B,0019
Boot0019* CD/DVD Drive     BIOS(3,0,00)..GO..NO........o.T.S.S.T.c.o.r.p. .C.D.D.V.D.W. .S.U.-.2.2.8.F.B....................A...........................>..Gd-.;.A..MQ..L.1.S.H.2.Y.6.F.H.0.5.0.5.8.Z. . . . . . ........BO
Boot001A* ubuntu    HD(1,800,100000,61e66b25-0eec-4ca2-8063-6d9218b9a7ee)File(EFIUbuntugrubx64.efi)
Boot001B* Hard Drive     BIOS(2,0,00)..GO..NOs.......Q.S.a.n.D.i.s.k....................A.......................$..Gd-.;.A..MQ..L.S.a.n.D.i.s.k........BO

=================== UEFI/Legacy mode:
BIOS is EFI-compatible, and is setup in EFI-mode for this installed-session.
SecureBoot disabled. (maybe sec-boot, Please report this message to boot.repair@gmail.com)


=================== PARTITIONS & DISKS:
sda1    : sda,    not-sepboot,    no-grubenv    nogrub,    no-docgrub,    no-update-grub,    32,    no-boot,    no-os,    is-maybe-EFI,    part-has-no-fstab,    part-has-no-fstab,    no-nt,    no-winload,    no-recov-nor-hid,    no-bmgr,    notwinboot,    nopakmgr,    nogrubinstall,    no---usr,    part-has-no-fstab,    not-sep-usr,    standard,    not-far,    /boot/efi.
sda2    : sda,    not-sepboot,    grubenv-ok    grub2,    signed grub-efi ,    update-grub,    64,    with-boot,    is-os,    not--efi--part,    fstab-without-boot,    fstab-has-goodEFI,    no-nt,    no-winload,    no-recov-nor-hid,    no-bmgr,    notwinboot,    apt-get,    grub-install,    with--usr,    fstab-without-usr,    not-sep-usr,    standard,    farbios,    /.

sda    : GPT,    no-BIOS_boot,    has-maybe-EFI,     not-usb,    has-os,    2048 sectors * 512 bytes


=================== parted -l:

Model: ATA ST1000LM024 HN-M (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 1000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt

Number  Start   End     Size    File system     Name  Flags
1      1049kB  538MB   537MB   fat32                 msftdata
2      538MB   992GB   991GB   ext4
3      992GB   1000GB  8467MB  linux-swap(v1)

=================== parted -lm:

BYT;
/dev/sda:1000GB:scsi:512:4096:gpt:ATA ST1000LM024 HN-M;
1:1049kB:538MB:537MB:fat32::msftdata;
2:538MB:992GB:991GB:ext4::;
3:992GB:1000GB:8467MB:linux-swap(v1)::;

=================== lsblk:
KNAME TYPE FSTYPE   SIZE LABEL
sda   disk        931.5G
sda1  part vfat     512M
sda2  part ext4   923.1G
sda3  part swap     7.9G
sr0   rom          1024M

KNAME ROTA RO RM STATE   MOUNTPOINT
sda      1  0  0 running
sda1     1  0  0         /boot/efi
sda2     1  0  0         /
sda3     1  0  0         [SWAP]
sr0      1  0  1 running


=================== mount:
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (rw)
none on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw)
none on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw)
none on /sys/firmware/efi/efivars type efivarfs (rw)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=0620)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=10%,mode=0755)
none on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=5242880)
none on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
none on /run/user type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=104857600,mode=0755)
none on /sys/fs/pstore type pstore (rw)
/dev/sda1 on /boot/efi type vfat (rw)
systemd on /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd type cgroup (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,none,name=systemd)
gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/1000/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse (rw,nosuid,nodev,user=yahya)


=================== ls:
/sys/block/sda (filtered):  alignment_offset bdi capability dev device discard_alignment events events_async events_poll_msecs ext_range holders inflight power queue range removable ro sda1 sda2 sda3 size slaves stat subsystem trace uevent
/sys/block/sdb (filtered):  alignment_offset bdi capability dev device discard_alignment events events_async events_poll_msecs ext_range holders inflight power queue range removable ro size slaves stat subsystem trace uevent
/sys/block/sr0 (filtered):  alignment_offset bdi capability dev device discard_alignment events events_async events_poll_msecs ext_range holders inflight power queue range removable ro size slaves stat subsystem trace uevent
/dev (filtered):  autofs block bsg btrfs-control bus cdrom char console core cpu cpu_dma_latency cuse disk dri ecryptfs fb0 fd full fuse hidraw0 hidraw1 hpet input kmsg kvm log mapper mcelog media0 mei mem net network_latency network_throughput null port ppp psaux ptmx pts random rfkill rtc rtc0 sda sda1 sda2 sda3 sdb sg0 sg1 sg2 shm snapshot snd sr0 stderr stdin stdout uhid uinput urandom v4l vfio vga_arbiter vhci vhost-net video0 zero
ls /dev/mapper:  control

=================== hexdump -n512 -C /dev/sda1
00000000  eb 58 90 6d 6b 66 73 2e  66 61 74 00 02 08 20 00  |.X.mkfs.fat... .|
00000010  02 00 00 00 00 f8 00 00  3f 00 ff 00 00 08 00 00  |........?.......|
00000020  00 00 10 00 fe 03 00 00  00 00 00 00 02 00 00 00  |................|
00000030  01 00 06 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000040  80 01 29 81 08 7b 20 20  20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20  |..)..{          |
00000050  20 20 46 41 54 33 32 20  20 20 0e 1f be 77 7c ac  |  FAT32   ...w|.|
00000060  22 c0 74 0b 56 b4 0e bb  07 00 cd 10 5e eb f0 32  |".t.V.......^..2|
00000070  e4 cd 16 cd 19 eb fe 54  68 69 73 20 69 73 20 6e  |.......This is n|
00000080  6f 74 20 61 20 62 6f 6f  74 61 62 6c 65 20 64 69  |ot a bootable di|
00000090  73 6b 2e 20 20 50 6c 65  61 73 65 20 69 6e 73 65  |sk.  Please inse|
000000a0  72 74 20 61 20 62 6f 6f  74 61 62 6c 65 20 66 6c  |rt a bootable fl|
000000b0  6f 70 70 79 20 61 6e 64  0d 0a 70 72 65 73 73 20  |oppy and..press |
000000c0  61 6e 79 20 6b 65 79 20  74 6f 20 74 72 79 20 61  |any key to try a|
000000d0  67 61 69 6e 20 2e 2e 2e  20 0d 0a 00 00 00 00 00  |gain ... .......|
000000e0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
000001f0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 55 aa  |..............U.|
00000200

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


=================== df -Th:

Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev           devtmpfs  3.9G   12K  3.9G   1% /dev
tmpfs          tmpfs     787M  1.7M  786M   1% /run
/dev/sda2      ext4      909G   76G  787G   9% /
none           tmpfs     4.0K     0  4.0K   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
none           tmpfs     5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none           tmpfs     3.9G   28M  3.9G   1% /run/shm
none           tmpfs     100M   44K  100M   1% /run/user
/dev/sda1      vfat      511M  3.4M  508M   1% /boot/efi

=================== fdisk -l:

Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 121601 cylinders, total 1953525168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1  1953525167   976762583+  ee  GPT
Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.


(debug) reinstall grub2 place-in-MBR no-BIOS_boot (sda2)


=================== Suggested repair
The default repair of the Boot-Repair utility would purge (in order to fix packages) and reinstall the grub2 of sda2 into the MBR of sda.
Grub-efi would not be selected by default because: no-win-efi
Additional repair would be performed: unhide-bootmenu-10s


=================== Blockers in case of suggested repair
Please use this software in a live-session (live-CD or live-USB). This will enable this feature. GPT detected. Please create a BIOS-Boot partition (>1MB, unformatted filesystem, bios_grub flag). This can be performed via tools such as Gparted. Then try again.


=================== Advice in case of suggested repair
The boot of your PC is in EFI mode, but no EFI partition was detected. You may want to retry after creating a EFI partition (FAT32, 100MB~250MB, start of the disk, boot flag).
Do you want to continue?


=================== Final advice in case of suggested repair


The boot files of [Linux] are far from the start of the disk. Your BIOS may not detect them. You may want to retry after creating a /boot partition (EXT4, >200MB, start of the disk). This can be performed via tools such as gParted. Then select this partition via the [Separate /boot partition:] option of [Boot Repair]. (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BootPartition)


=================== User settings
The settings chosen by the user will not act on the boot.
4

I have two suggestions:

Option 1

In Ubuntu, examine the /boot/efi/EFI/ubuntu/grub.cfg file. It should look something like this:

search.fs_uuid f8b548e2-4984-47d4-896e-0f47bb753373 root hd0,gpt2 
set prefix=($root)'/boot/grub'
configfile $prefix/grub.cfg

This example tells GRUB to look for the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file on the partition with a UUID of f8b548e2-4984-47d4-896e-0f47bb753373, which it expects on hd0,gpt2 (that is, /dev/sda2). You should update this file with your current information. Use blkid to find the UUID of your current root (/) partition (/dev/sda2) and change it in this configuration file.

There's also a chance that you're missing /boot/grub/grub.cfg (not to be confused with /boot/efi/EFI/ubuntu/grub.cfg, which is the stub I've just described). If so, a sudo update-grub should regenerate that file.

Option 2

If the preceding doesn't work, or if you just don't like GRUB, you could install my rEFInd boot manager. You can download the Debian package from its downloads page or install the PPA and do a sudo apt-get install refind. Either way, rEFInd should take over from GRUB as the default boot program. rEFInd is a lot less finicky than GRUB and so is less likely to cause this sort of problem. Certainly whatever your current GRUB configuration problem is will not affect rEFInd.

There are other alternatives besides rEFInd, too; see this page of mine for a list and my thoughts on them all. IIRC, ELILO and SYSLINUX are both in the Ubuntu repositories and may install fairly easily, but I've not tested them recently. As you've got a single-boot installation with Secure Boot disabled, these tools should both work fine for your needs and are worth considering if you want something in the main Ubuntu repositories.

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