To help other people, which are struggling with an equivalent issue, I will post here my solution.
Thanks to @bain I got to this thread New laptop (Skylake) cannot boot Xubuntu even with boot parameters where an equivalent problem was posted.
There solution was to add some kernel flags to the boot options, therefore I tried it and got into Ubuntu Live USB with a display resolution of 640x480. To get full resolution and the final opportunity to install Ubuntu I deleted
nomodeset from my flags and got full resolution. My final kernel flags for the boot option replaced
quiet splash --- :
i915.preliminary_hw_support=1 nouveau.blacklist=1 edd=on nolapic pcie_aspm=force tpm_tis.interrupts=0 ---
Now I have installed Ubuntu 15.10 and upgraded to kernel 4.3, but I'm still struggling to get a GRUB menu and to boot finally into Ubuntu.
After various tries I edit a Ubuntu live USB key to start the grub from my Ubuntu and was able to enter my Ubuntu installation. But to set up the UEFI boot menu is still a problem and I will try later to solve it. Now I try to set up my Wifi: I installed the new firmware from Intel and the driver, also I tried to add
intel_pstate=no_hwp to the kernel parameters, because it was suggested in a similar thread. But it doesn't solve the problem for me.
I will add later more details of my progress.
EDIT: I tried different kernel parameters for the boot options and now I only need
nolapic to be able to boot Ubuntu and
i915.preliminary_hw_support=1 to enable the touchscreen and the active pen.
EDIT: I tried to install kernel 4.4, but afterwards Ubuntu showed a fatal error. Therefore I thought it could be worth to try out a daily of 16.04. To install it I needed
intel_pstate=no_hwp in the kernel parameters and on 16.04 I had no issues with my wifi. The only remaining problem was that I wasn't able to enable my touchscreen and active pen, but after some days and some updates of Ubuntu it worked perfect.
Now I have no system problems left and can work with my new notebook, my last thing to solve is only to enable grub on the startup.
Thanks everyone for the help!!