So I have a Windows folder, let's say
F:\UShare . I want to use/mount that folder inside my VirtualBox Ubuntu installation.
It is still unclear to me what I have to do, even after reading this.
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If I understand correctly - your Windows OS is the host and Ubuntu is the guest VM.
If you're using VirtualBox with GUI - just click on a VM and go to it's Settings. In there you'll find the Shared Folders tab - and click the plus sign to add F:\UShare into the guest.
This link might help: https://www.virtualbox.org/manual/ch04.html#sharedfolders
Of course the same can be done using CLI, and if you're not sure on how to do that, please look in here: https://www.virtualbox.org/manual/ch08.html
To manually mount the folder open a terminal and use
mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda? /media (in which I assumed that your windows hard drive is NTFS formatted - and you should replace the
? in which ever sda is correct in your computer)
I had many problems getting this to work.
Then, I discovered Vagrant. Depending on what you are trying to accomplish with your guest VM, you might do well to use Vagrant. Vagrant provisions VirtualBoxes according to a formula. You search for an appropriate Vagrant file for your purpose (like Drupal, Wordpress, Joomla, etc.) and then type "vagrant up" and it all just happens for you. [Of course, there's that bit of learning curve to figure out how Vagrant works and modifying the Vagrantfile, but it's pretty magical to pull a Vagrant file off Github and use it with no mods and, boom, you have an entire Virtualbox in very short order.)
The other option is to use Samba to serve files from your Windows host to Linux guest, or vice versa. I use a Samba server on my Linux host to share files with my Windows guest and it seems to work much better than the shared directories. My shared directories got corrupted when things reset or rebooted unexpectedly and that corruption seems to happen less with Samba.