You can install your driver via the package manager :
Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and :
nvidia packages :
sudo apt-get purge nvidia*
Find the driver versions available in the repositories :
sudo apt-get update
apt-cache search nvidia binary
The output may look similar to :
nvidia-340 - NVIDIA binary driver - version 340.96
nvidia-340-dev - NVIDIA binary Xorg driver development files
nvidia-361 - NVIDIA binary driver - version 361.42
nvidia-361-dev - NVIDIA binary Xorg driver development files
Pick the version you want. In the above output, version 361 is the latest available. Version 340 might be more stable (or it might not). Either choice will work at this time.
Install the version you picked (
nvidia-340 driver in this example) :
sudo apt-get install nvidia-340
Apt will also install a number of dependencies including nvidia-prime, nvidia-settings and many more packages.
This answer is based on the accepted answer by hg8. I simply wanted to make it a little more universal / timeless.