When I tweak a setting in the Settings menu in Ubuntu, where is that information stored? For example if I add a custom keyboard shortcut, or set my default display, where does is this information later retrieved from by the OS? I am sure it ends up in a text file somewhere, but I haven't found it yet (probably because I am not quite sure where to look).
WOW! All the answers below so far have been super helpful! My question was perhaps a little too general, and ideally I would accept all answers as correct because they all provide very useful tools for finding useful config (or other) information.
I am accepting @A.B.'s answer, because
dconf watch / scratched my particular itch perfectly. However, I would direct future readers to @serg's answer for it's detail, and @DK Bose's answer for its general usefulness. I would also suggest anyone with a similar question to experiment with all the suggested commands as I will be doing!