It's caused by an interaction bug between some version 3* / 4* Linux kernels and Intel/Broadwell kernel module i915.ko / i915_bpo.ko.
"ko" stands for "kernel object". The name of the buggy module varies between i915.ko and i915_bpo.ko depending on your Linux kernel version (each kernel version works with a different version of this kernel module).
The i915/i915_bpo file is a kernel module which operates as a device driver for Intel/Broadwell GPU (Graphical Power Unit) devices: in your case, it's the device driver for your VGA-compatible controller Intel Corporation Broadwell-U Integrated Graphics (rev 09).
For more info about this bug, please read and subscribe to this bug report:
Currently, the latest stable (working) kernel module is i915_bdw.ko, but in order to use it you'll have to install kernel 3.13.0-36-generic and use it as your system's default kernel.
In order to install kernel 3.13.0-36-generic, run this shell supercommand:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get check && sudo apt-get install linux-image-3.13.0-36-generic linux-image-extra-3.13.0-36-generic linux-headers-3.13.0-36 linux-headers-3.13.0-36-generic linux-signed-image-3.13.0-36-generic linux-tools-3.13.0-36 -y
If your Ubuntu repository does not have kernel 3.13.0-36-generic, you can manually download and install the necessary files:
Open a shell terminal window.
Run this command in order to check your operating system's architecture:
If the answer to the above command is x86_64 (or anything having 64 in it), your system architecture is 64-bit. Otherwise, the above command will return i386 (or something like it, e.g. i586, i686...), thus your system architecture is 32-bit.
Run this command in order to create and access a temporary installation folder:
sudo mkdir /tmp/kerneldebs && cd /tmp/kerneldebs
Now you need to download the 3 necessary files for your system's architecture.
If your system's architecture is 32-bit (i386), run this supercommand:
sudo wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v220.127.116.11-trusty/linux-headers-3.13.11-03131106_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_all.deb http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v18.104.22.168-trusty/linux-headers-3.13.11-03131106-generic_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_i386.deb http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v22.214.171.124-trusty/linux-image-3.13.11-03131106-generic_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_i386.deb && sudo dpkg -i *.deb
If your system's architecture is 64-bit (amd64), run this supercommand:
sudo wget http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v126.96.36.199-trusty/linux-headers-3.13.11-03131106_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_all.deb http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v188.8.131.52-trusty/linux-headers-3.13.11-03131106-generic_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_amd64.deb http://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v184.108.40.206-trusty/linux-image-3.13.11-03131106-generic_3.13.11-03131106.201408131735_amd64.deb && sudo dpkg -i *.deb
The supercommand above will download all the three deb files required for kernel installation in your system and then will install them.
Now that you've installed the kernel, you'll have to configure GRUB in order to be able to boot kernel 3.13.0-36-generic by default (instead of booting your current 4.X kernel). For help about how to do it, please read the answers to this question.