This is actually quite similar to a question posted one year ago Make a portable Ubuntu on USB stick (bootable on MacBook/iMac).
I meet the same problem on my Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon with Windows 8.1 on it.
Purpose: I want to get a full installed Ubuntu(v14) on a portable USB stick, which is able to save changes when restarted, and also bootable on any computer.
Is it possible to do so? And how?
Note: built-in disk is "sda", and flash disk is "sdb".
- I made up partitions on installation by sdb1 bios_grub 1MB, sdb2 efi 256MB, sdb3 ext4 / 6GB, sdb4 ext4 /home 1G, sdb5 swap area 8G, and select sdb2 as the boot loader location (also tried sdb as the boot loader location, resulting in the same problem). After installation the system Ubuntu is able to boot though grub, as well as ubuntu option in Bios list. However, I cannot boot it from the HDD(which refers to sdb) option in Bios boot list.
- I also notice that during installation, the console detail showed ,when installing grub2, Volume sdb not found. However, it is able to exact files into sdb3(root), and sdb4(/home).
- I also notice that in Ubuntu disk app, sda2(which is previously windows boot loader) is now mounted to /boot/efi/. However, sdb2 which is expected to be the efi partition for Ubuntu, is not mounted and is empty.
- As for boot into windows, it is okay that I choose it from grub list "windows boot loader (sda2)" or in Bios Boot List "Windows Boot Manager" or in Bios Boot List "SATA: ..."(build-in disk). And also I can enter Bios setup and edit boot list, moving Ubuntu down under the option of Windows Boot manager.