If this is a question from a test, for completeness i'd add normal serial tty's, where you'd connect to your computer with a serial cable. you'd need a getty (or whatever tty serial listeners are called now) previously configured before you lost your terminal tho, and you'd need a second computer to talk to the first, so as a home emergency this is not likely to happen.
You may also have some webmin console that gives you (in effect) shell access, though not techncally interactive shell. at that point you're better off doing easy commands, like apt-get some-terminal-emulator.
If you have a browser window open, you could in theory search for a java terminal emulator but my guess is that you'd have to install ahead of time, and just having a browser window wouldn't let you access the underlying pty's right, but I have no time to test either way.
so, the above are "what are all the possible ways" questions, not necessarily useful in real life for home, though most server rooms would probably have serial access.
hmm, a lot of other tools (emacs, vim, etc) allow some level of shelling out. lets hope you have xemacs open