Quick answer. Some machines will have a firewall block (disable of ping response). By your description this appears to be the case. Some people disable ping (using a firewall) to prevent DOS attacks and unwanted scans of their computer. Disabling ping will not disable file transferring.
In order to transfer a file to a computer you have to have some type of network protocol setup where you can actually log into the computer with the provided network credentials for that particular machine.
Normally Windows network sharing is setup on the computer for allowing files to be transferred. You can look at Turn sharing on or off - Windows Help for enabling sharing on your windows machine.
Since it appears that you are trying to connect to a Windows machine from a Virtual machine run on a Linux host you can use the Windows host to scan and check if you have the network sharing services activated on the windows destination machine by running nmap. You could install it on the Linux host with:
$ sudo apt-get install nmap
Then you can scan your destination machine with:
$ sudo nmap -O 192.168.1.100 -oG -
Change the "192.168.1.1" to the IP of your destination computer.
After the scan completes look for something that resembles:
# Nmap 6.46 scan initiated Fri Mar 20 19:58:28 2015 as: nmap -O -oG - 192.168.23.102
Host: 192.168.1.100 () Status: Up
Host: 192.168.1.100 () Ports: 135/open/tcp//msrpc///, 139/open/tcp//netbios-ssn///, 445/open/tcp//microsoft-ds///, 554/open/tcp//rtsp///, 2869/ope
# Nmap done at Fri Mar 20 19:59:38 2015 -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 70.26 seconds
This is showing that microsoft's network (139/open/tcp//netbios-snn) is active on this IP.