1. Are all Ubuntu download servers an exact copy of the main server?
  2. Can a software be on a server but not be on another server?
  3. Can the version of a software be different on different servers?
  4. Where is the main server?
  1. No. Servers need to get updated from the main server so some repositories will lag a little bit. Here is a list of mirrors with a column that states how far behind a server is. As you can see some are a week behind but you might also expect that this is due to localisation (translations in progress).

  2. See 1. In general this is only the case when a server is updated and that mirror is not updated yet. I would assume this to be the case when a new release is out. The mirrors will need a bit of time to update.

  3. See 1 and 2.

  4. That would be archive.ubuntu.com and/or uk.archive.ubuntu.com I would assume it to be in the United States and the 2nd to be in the United Kingdom. And I would consider both "main" servers.

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