Windows is incapable of recognising a Linux partition, so unless you install an add-on you won't be able to see it from Windows. The reverse is not true; you can see Windows partitions from Linux.
The drive/storage systems are totally different: In Windows you have drive letters such as C:, D: etc but in Linux you do not; the physical drives are /dev/sda, /dev/sdb & they will be "mounted" in a manner that makes them look like one big file system, without the clumsy C:/ prefixes that Windows uses.
If you want to be able to transfer data back & forth, just have one of the Windows partitions mounted in your Ubuntu set-up & use that; but don't try to mount it as your home folder, it will cause problems. I have a /Dos directory on my PC, just copy to /Dos/ & it will be visible in Windows. You can set this up while installing Linux; you will, of course, have to do that again if you deleted it.