I need to be able to add a virtual users to vsftpd that only have access to a sub folder. The reason why I want to use virtual users is I only want to have 1 real user on the server.

The FTP structure is:

  • www
    • website_name1
      • sub_folder1
    • website_name2
      • sub_folder2
      • sub_folder3
    • website_name3
    • website_name4

The main account has access to the www folder and all sub directories and I want to add a virtual user that can have access to the sub_folder1 and only sub_folder1

Also to avoid some confusion I would also require another user to access sub_folder3 and only sub_folder3. My point being I need to be able to choose which folder and sub folders on a user by user basis.

I have found ways to to add users to see the whole strucutre or setup user named folders both of which have no use to me.

I found a similar question posted here:

How to setup VSFTPD for multiple users including adding specific directories

but it recommends proftpd which I though was general less secure.
Or have I missed the point here?

  • I had a problem with authentication for the longest time until I found this serverfault.com/questions/450214/… Apparently PAM has issues with MD5 hash. This guide solves that issue.
    – user454690
    Sep 25, 2015 at 18:49

4 Answers 4


With a bit of playing around I've managed to come up with a semi solution (not perfect but good enough)

using 2707974 answer and information I've gained else where I've been able to get what I need.

First you need vsftp and PAM installed

apt-get install vsftpd libpam-pwdfile

Edit /etc/vsftpd.conf

nano /etc/vsftpd.conf

then paste in the following


#virutal user settings

Edit to your exact needs the most important bit for virtual users is everything after the virtual user settings comment

Creating User

You can either use a database or htpasswd I found htpasswd faster and easier to use.

make a directory to store your users

mkdir /etc/vsftpd
htpasswd -cd /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user1

adding additional users just omit the -c

htpasswd -d /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user2

I've only managed to get it to work using CRYPT which limits to 8 chars to use more than 8 chars use openssl to generate a compatible hash and pipe directly into htpasswd

htpasswd -c -p -b /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user1 $(openssl passwd -1 -noverify password)

Once your users are created you can now change your PAM config file

nano /etc/pam.d/vsftpd

and remove everything inside this file and replace with the following

auth required pam_pwdfile.so pwdfile /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd
account required pam_permit.so

This will enable login for your virtual users defined in /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd and will disable local users

Next we need to add a user for these virtual users to use. These users will not have access to the shell and will be called vsftpd

useradd --home /home/vsftpd --gid nogroup -m --shell /bin/false vsftpd

the user must match guest_username=vsftpd in the vsftpd conf file

Defining Directory Access

The important line here is the following


this means that when user1 logs in it will look for the following file


this file the same as the vsftpd.conf so you can define a new local_root

going back to the question we want user1 to only have access to var/www/website_name1/sub_folder1, so we need to create the vsftpd_user_conf folder:

mkdir /etc/vsftpd_user_conf

Now create the user file:

nano /etc/vsftpd_user_conf/user1

and enter the following line


Now restart vsftp

service vsftpd restart

you should now be able to login as user1 who will only be able to see var/www/website_name1/sub_folder1 and any folder and file inside it.

That's it you can now add as many users as you want and limit their access to whatever folder you wish.

important to remember if you do not create a user conf file it will default to the var/www folder as root (in the example above)

If the subfolder is intended to be modifiable by the user, it might be necesary to change the owner of the shared subfolder:

chown vsftpd:nogroup /var/www/website_name1/sub_folder1
  • This works with some modifications: 1) Use absolute paths (replace paths starting on "var/" with "/var". 2) vsftpd 2.3.5 which is in Ubuntu 12.04 does not support allow_writeable_chroot option, you can solve it by installing patched vsftpd.
    – gadelat
    Mar 11, 2015 at 18:09
  • Hello, with the ssl password do we again omit -c with -d or just omit -c? Also on a second note, do we just rerun the query to change the password? or is there another method. Thanks
    – mdixon18
    Jan 7, 2016 at 17:58
  • 1
    Additional: enable secure TLS connections. digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/…
    – momo2047
    Mar 19, 2017 at 19:03
  • 1
    apache2-utils might be required for some installations I have not included it in the answers since its not relevant for everyone.
    – Avenyet
    May 11, 2017 at 8:03
  • 1
    For create second user don't use the -c parameter. It's creating file again. htpasswd -p -b /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user2 $(openssl passwd -1 -noverify password)
    – devugur
    Oct 23, 2018 at 14:00

Try with this manual. Maybe will work for You.

How to do it

Install vsftpd and a PAM library

Edit /etc/vsftpd.conf and /etc/pam.d/vsftpd

Create user accouts with custom directories (in /var/www/ for example)

Set directories with the correct chmod and chown

Create a admin user with full access to the server

  1. Install vsftpd (Very Secure FTP Deamon) and libpam-pwdfile to create virtual users

I wanted to create FTP users but I didn’t want to add local unix users (no shell access, no home directory and so on). A PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) will help you create virtual users.

sudo apt-get install vsftpd libpam-pwdfile

  1. Edit vsftpd.conf

First you need to back up the original file

sudo mv /etc/vsftpd.conf /etc/vsftpd.conf.bak

Then create a new one

sudo vim /etc/vsftpd.conf

Copy and paste the following lines. The file should ONLY contain these lines:

  1. Register virtual users

To register a user you use htpasswd, so I assume you have apache2 working on your server. Create a vsftpd folder then put configuration files in it.

sudo mkdir /etc/vsftpd


sudo htpasswd -cd /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user1

-c means that we’ll create the file if it’s not existing yet -d forces MD5, you need it on ubuntu 12.04, just use it always

The command will prompt for a password.

If you want to add new users afterwards:

sudo htpasswd -d /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd user2

  1. Configure PAM in /etc/pam.d/vsftpd

Again, you need to back up the orignal file

sudo mv /etc/pam.d/vsftpd /etc/pam.d/vsftpd.bak

and create a new one

sudo vim /etc/pam.d/vsftpd

Copy and paste these 2 lines (this should be the only content). I insist only these 2 lines, I wasted a lot of time keeping the originals and just added these.

auth required pam_pwdfile.so pwdfile /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd
account required pam_permit.so
  1. Create a local user without shell access

sudo useradd --home /home/vsftpd --gid nogroup -m --shell /bin/false vsftpd

You can check that it’s been created with the id command: id vsftpd. We define the user with the /bin/false shell because of the check_shell parameter (even if you don’t use it). When the end user connects to the FTP server, they will be used for rights and ownership:

chmod and chown.

  1. Restart vsftpd

The common way is using init.d like all deamon

sudo /etc/init.d/vsftpd restart

sudo service vsftpd restart

  1. Create directories

According to configuration all users will be placed into this folder: /var/www/user1.

You need to create them with particular rights: the root folder cannot be writable!

 / [root = /var/www/user1] => 555
www [ /var/www/user1/www ] => 755
docs [ /var/www/user1/docs ] => 755

Note: the user cannot create files or folders in the root directory.

In vsftpd.conf we have chroot_local_user=YES so the user can’t see anything outside of his folder. To him, the server looks like this:

So just run these commands:

mkdir /var/www/user1`
chmod -w /var/www/user1
mkdir www/user1/www
chmod -R 755 /var/www/user1/www
chown -R vsftpd:nogroup /var/www/user1

The /var/www/user1 folder HAS TO exist or connection will fail.

Right now you can try to connect with your FTP

  1. Create an Admin user to access the entire server

To create an admin user we need to register a new user with htpasswd.

Before we do so, I’ll advise you to check into the /etc/ftpusers file that define certain users that are not allowed to connect with ftp. I think it’s only for local users and not virtual users but just in case don’t choose a name contained in this file.

sudo htpasswd -d /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd theadmin

Now we need to add a new line into /etc/vsftpd.conf


This means that your user will be placed into their folder (as a jail) EXCEPT users in the /etc/


Let’s create this file and add our user, the file is a simple line containing “theadmin”. Add one user per line. That means you DON’T need to create a /var/www/theadmin folder, the user will login and start in /home/vsftpd.

Restart the server and you’re done !

  • Tried this already it very inflexible since it enforces local_root=/var/www/$USER. It doesn't allow me to specify a single directory for a user or users. this directory normally has different purpose and location depending on the client. Thanks for the response though.
    – Avenyet
    Jan 20, 2015 at 9:31

In addition to the answers by @Avenyet and @2707974, you can use a more secure way to create the virtual users password file (/etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd). In stead of using the htaccess command you can use the mkpasswd command from the whois package (on Ubuntu at least). mkpasswd doesn't update the password file for you like htaccess, it only generates a password hash. So you will need to create and update the password file yourself.

Fortunately the password file syntax is very simple, it just consists of the username and password hash separated by a colon, and one line for each user. Example:


This is the password foo, with the basic crypt hashing.

Linux crypt supports better hashing algorithms than the basic des crypt used by htaccess and the md5 used by the openssl passwd command. Use mkpasswd -m help to see a list of which algorithms your crypt supports. On today's systems the best ones are SHA-256 or SHA-512. Unlike default des crypt hashing (which htaccess also uses) these make use of all the characters in the password, and unlike des and openssl passwd they have a configurable number of rounds.

The more rounds, the longer it takes to calculate the hash, and the more difficult it becomes to reverse the hash if an attacker gains access to the password hashes. For a server that is not on the public internet I would say to pick the number of rounds as high as possible but without the hashing taking noticeable time, so less than 0.1 second. If the server is on the internet, that might become a denial of service vector, as someone could try lots of logins with random passwords and use up CPU resources. If that is a risk for your configuration you should use a lower value.

The default for the SHA variants is 5000, which is pretty low. I'm using 100000 on my installation (which is not publicly accessible).

To generate such a hash, enter mkpasswd -m sha-512 -R 100000. This will ask you to enter the password and print out the hash. Use the hash in the passwd file instead of the simple crypt hashes like this:


The type of hash and the number of rounds is embedded in the hash value, so crypt can see what method to use to check a password. It is even possible to mix different types of hashes in a single passwd file. These passwd files can be used at /etc/vsftpd/ftpd.passwd for the highest level of security crypt currently has to offer. For the rest of the configuration I refer to the other answers.

(I'm still waiting for crypt to support a better password hashing algorithm like scrypt or one of the Argon2 variants.)


yes you can, and for flexibility create a userconfig dir and file, mkdir /var/www/userconfs or whatever you want to change the userconfs name to, then create a specific file

vi /var/www/userconfigs/ftpuseraccount

inside type, local_root=/var/www(or whatever u want to access by dir) guest_username=www-data(the ubuntu owner of the file top edit

after update you vsftpd.conf by adding user_config_dir=/var/www/userconfigs(or whatever you replaced it as, this account will access whatever sdir yo specified)

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .