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Excluding all subvolumes of the / folder with rsync -x what other folders should one never rsync? For example /dev sounds to be a bad idea for rsync.

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Depending on what you do:

/tmp
/var/{lock,cache,run,tmp}
/run

/var/{run,lock} maybe symbolic links (to /run and /run/lock respectively).

  • /tmp and /var/cache are not worth syncing for obvious reasons.
  • Files in /run and /run/lock are too process-specific to be retained.
  • /var/tmp is supposed to contain data to be preserved across reboots (unlike /tmp, where a reboot is free to wipe it clean), so it may or may not be worth backing up.

Ideally you should examine what the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard says about each directory, see if Ubuntu is compliant, and then pick out those folders worth backing up.

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