How should I license some desktop icons and shell bash files as open sorce software? I am creating and going to package them for Ubuntu 14.04.
On the question of Free Software vs Open Source, you might want to have a look at the Philosphy of the GNU Project, particularly at Richard Stallman's Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software.
If you rather prefer to watch and listen, have a look at Richard Stallman's most recent (2014-12-29) talk Freedom in your computer and in the net, given at 31C3.
Open sorce but that not able to make edits to the code and must have my name a seatless in the sorce code of every file
That would exclude the GNU GPL, since you want to deny the freedom to distribute modified versions of your work.
In principle, a conceivable licence then would be Creative Commons license, namely Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0).
A package licensed under these conditions will never make it to Ubuntu main, for which LIcensing explicitly makes clear:
Must allow modification and distribution of modified copies under the same licence. Just having the source code does not convey the same freedom as having the right to change it. Without the ability to modify software, the Ubuntu community cannot support software, fix bugs, translate it, or improve it.