5

In the following statement about "apt-get update" from linux.die.net is the term "package index file":

Used to re-synchronize the package index files from their sources. ...

What exactly does "package index file" mean? Google has not given me any answer about this.

5

The "package index files" contain information about the packages a package repository provides. APT stores them in /var/lib/apt/lists

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4

The package index file is a file that contains information about the packages present in a repository for use with apt. The format is described here:

https://wiki.debian.org/RepositoryFormat#A.diff.2FIndex_files

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