I would like to take a photo from my webcam. As I moved from Windows to Ubuntu I wonder if there is a built-in way to achieve this or I need special software. If so can you suggest a good one?
There's an application called cheese which can do this. IIRC it's installed by default. If not, you can install it manually using the software center or by typing
sudo apt-get install cheese into a terminal window.
I would suggest you use Cheese. It is a webcam program for Ubuntu that supports almost any webcam.
You can install it by running the following command in a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T):
sudo apt-get install cheese
After that, it will display in your installed programs menus.