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This question already has an answer here:

When I use visudo, it always opens it with nano editor. How to change the editor to vim?

marked as duplicate by Eliah Kagan, αғsнιη, Radu Rădeanu command-line Oct 20 '14 at 11:44

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

180

Type sudo update-alternatives --config editor

You will get a text like below.

There are 4 choices for the alternative editor (providing /usr/bin/editor).

  Selection    Path                Priority   Status
------------------------------------------------------------
* 0            /bin/nano            40        auto mode
  1            /bin/ed             -100       manual mode
  2            /bin/nano            40        manual mode
  3            /usr/bin/vim.basic   30        manual mode
  4            /usr/bin/vim.tiny    10        manual mode

Press enter to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number: 3

Find vim.basic or vim.tiny selection number. Type it and press enter. Next time when you open visudo your editor will be vim

37

If you want just to make your user use by default a different editor, add

export EDITOR=vim; 

in your .profile (or wherever you keep your startup environment if using a shell different from bash). Log out, log in, check that the variable is set:

[romano:~] % env | grep EDI
EDITOR=vim

and now all the programs that call an editor (and are well written) will default to vim for your user.

As noticed by @EliahKagan (thanks!) in the comment, this will not work for visudo: since you are supposed to call it using sudo, when you do

sudo visudo

the sudo command will sanitize (read: delete) most environment variables before rising privileges --- and it's a good thing it does. So the change will not percolate to visudo. To still have it working, you have to call it like:

sudo EDITOR=vim visudo

Finally, as hinted here, you can also add a line to your /etc/sudoers file near the top that reads:

Defaults editor=/usr/bin/vim 

A word of warning: when modifying your sudoers configuration, keep a terminal open with a root shell in it (with sudo -i). You never know, and you can easily get locked out of root.

  • 4
    Did you try this out? Running sudo visudo after setting EDITOR (or VISUAL) to vim and exporting it does not--and should not be expected to--result in visudo using vim instead of nano as the editor. By default, sudo resets most environment variables for the commands it runs. Only a handful are retained. EDITOR and VISUAL are not. Thus, after export EDITOR=vim, EDITOR will still not be set to vim for the visudo process launched by sudo visudo. EDITOR=vim sudo visudo does the same thing and thus also doesn't work. sudo EDITOR=vim visudo does work. – Eliah Kagan Oct 20 '14 at 9:56
  • ...@EliahKagan, you are obviously right. I was thinking in deleting the answer, but your added information is valuable, so I tried to retain it somehow. – Rmano Oct 20 '14 at 10:06
  • @EliahKagan ...and I know from where come my confusion... look at unix.stackexchange.com/a/4409/52205 --- seems that, once upon a time, sudo did pass the EDITOR variable. – Rmano Oct 20 '14 at 10:13
  • @Rmano it's not "once upon a time" exactly, but depends on what flags visudo was compiled and what options are set in sudoers. – muru Oct 20 '14 at 10:20
  • Its more elegant than apt-ing. – Brain90 Nov 12 '15 at 1:23

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