There is no inherent difference between system groups and 'normal' groups, just like there is none between system users and regular users. It is by convention that human users are assigned uids from a certain number (e.g. 1000) upwards, whereas system users get uids in a range below that number.
The actual uid number, apart from the special uid 0 which is reserved for
root, has no meaning at all and does not convey any privileges.
We distinguish system users and regular users only because they are treated differently. For instance, there is no point in displaying system users in a graphical login manager. Also, most system users don't need a login shell or home directory, whereas human users (normally) do.
--system option of the
adduser command is no more than a convenience for the administrator, as it presets a number of options to sensible values for a 'system account'. In fact, the whole
adduser command is a convenience wrapper around (lower level commands like
groupadd, which are wrappers around) essentially just editing